This page is for a list of other sites that contain Irish related graves, often with many other graves as well. Where possible, you will be given direct links. These will mostly be outside Australia. I have also included many lone graves, Irish related, with as much detail as I can to help in your research. I have no further information on these.
• There are two volumes with a limited special first edition binding.• Each book is hard-bound in green leather and blocked in gold.• There are 1,300 pages with 753 illustrations, Including a bibliography and index.Separate to the two volumes is the log book of the convict transport ‘Atlas’. A total of 363 pages,The following is an overview of content:On the morning of November 29, 1801, a heavy wooden wagon, lumbered through the streets of Cork and moved slowly in the direction of the port of Cobh. Absorbing the bumps in the springless cart was a young sworn United Irishman named Murtagh Ahern and his two brothers John and Michael. They had been sentenced to suffer death for rebellious outrages and the brutal murders of all the male members of a Tithe-Proctor’s family at Croom in County Limerick.Their commuted sentences to life ‘beyond the sea’ would see them chained below the deck of the ‘Death ship’ Atlas and spend 220 agonising days amongst sick, hungry and disease ridden inmates. It would be the worst voyage in the history of Irish convict transportation to the infant colony of New South Wales. Sixty-five convicts, including his brother John, would join the sufferers on their voyage to the deep.At 2 o’clock on July 6, 1802 Murtagh arrived in Port Jackson with his brother Michael. They would suffer, but survive, the most turbulent times in the history of Australia. Murtagh would marry English convict Mary Abbey. They would produce seventeen children and become one of the pioneer families of Liverpool. He worked for Lieutenant Edward Lord in Van Diemen’s Land and under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins. In 1810 he received a pardon from Governor Lachlan Macquarie. He became a constable, a hotelier and a prominent farmer on the Georges River.This is the story of an ordinary Irishman who arrived in Sydney, his neck and ankles locked in heavy irons and chains, with only a tattered shirt and trousers to protect him from the extreme elements. Penniless, sick, hungry and treated as a beast of burden, he was classed as an inferior being, one on the scrap heap of humanity. Murtagh had been and continued to be confronted by some of the most extraordinary circumstances and times in our history, yet he showed immense courage and compassion and overcame his predicament to create a large family of many proud ‘native Australians’. He lived up to his family motto:Per ardua surgoI rise through difficultiesThis book gives a sweep of Irish history from Murtagh’s ancestor Brian Boru the High King of Ireland, the dark days of Oliver Cromwell, the horrors and privations of the 1798 Irish rebellion to the discovery and founding of Australia. It details the struggles of succeeding Governors and the characters who made Australia what it is today. The second volume also covers the early Irish family records of Murtagh and Mary’s family in Mileham. The background of their seventeen children is also included.
You are correct James was tried and sentenced at Meath. No evidence of him being a United man, however the timing of his trial fits the events in Meath at the start of the rebellion on May May 23 and 24, 1798. (extract from my book covering the rebellion)
Some local people rose and prepared to march on the city, only to come under attack and suffer slaughter at Santry and Rathfarnham. Lord Roden and his fox-hunters took many prisoners, tied them and other suspects together on carts and put them on display in the castle-yard before hanging them on the scaffolding at Carlisle Bridge. Wade and Ledwich, two deserters from Lord Elys corps, were publically hanged on Queens Bridge on May 26 and the bodies of James Byrne and James Keely displayed in the castle-yard. The horrors of civil war had started and would engulf every corner of the country. The outrages, merciless cruelties and atrocities by the Orange yeomanry, military and magistrates would ignite the flame of revenge and play a major part throughout the insurrection. The crimes of the rebels were on the same scale, now seen to be carried out in retaliation for these terrible events. A large group of rebels entered the town of Dunshaughlin in county Meath and searched for arms in a small barrack without success. They were informed the arms had been moved into the house of a Rev. Neilson who lived nearby. A volley of shots were fired at the windows after which the rebels rushed inside and killed Neilson, his brother-in-law and a gardener, then proceeded to plunder the house and collect arms. Another party, commanded by Thomas Atkinson and Thomas Connor, ransacked the house of John Bassington of Ballymacarney in Meath and stole four horses. At their court-martial, both declared they were ordered to kill all heretics and to wade in their blood. They boasted they had murdered policemen at Dunboyne and the six Fencibles who were guarding the baggage of that regiment at Clonee-bridge.
The Irish sentence of life was at the time mostly reserved for murder. This differed to the ‘Bloody code of England which saw minor crimes, even been caught at night with a blackened face receive a sentence to ‘suffer death’. James appears in the census 1811 and 1814. There was no muster for the Atlas during their year of arrival.
1811 1814 29. Connolly James 21 M Meath Spr. 1801 Life Government Parramatta Y Y
The following maybe of interest, again from my book:
The Sydney gazette And New South Wales Advertiser, in its first edition published on Saturday March 5, 1803, informed the colony that this banditti is entirely composed of Irish prisoners brought by the Hercules and the Atlas.
Authorities, including Governor King, were very suspicious of the Atlas I and the Hercules convicts and later those from the second Atlas that arrived on October 30, 1802. They had every right to be concerned. After all many had actively participated in the 1798 Rebellion, a deadly mutiny on the Hercules and a large number of those sentenced to life had committed terrible murders and other crimes of violence.
It was a chilly winter morning and as a fog was starting to lift from the waters of Sydney Harbour the convicts from the Atlas who were considered able to work were marched up the dusty road from the wharf and into the gaol yard in Sydney Town. Each convict had with him bedding, clothes and his personal effects. Clothes were the most valuable item they possessed; they had economic value and could be used to trade for food, liquor and tobacco. The Slop clothing mostly consisted of a jacket, one pair of trousers, and a shirt or duck frock. Other items included a blanket, a cap, an ivory comb, six needles, stockings and a pair of shoes (often not made for the left or right foot). If lucky a pair of socks were included, if not a length of rag was bound in-between the toe and around the foot to relieve the pain and make walking at least bearable. This become known as the toe-rag. Females were given, in addition to the mens allowance, a handkerchief and a shift, and three yards of flannel in lieu of a petticoat. Once assembled in the main yard they were mustered and formed into lines before the Chief Superintendent of convicts. Most of the convicts were of dark, ruddy to pale and sallow complexion with black or dark brown hair, hazel eyes and under 6 feet (183 cm) tall. Some had been delivered from the hulk Supply which was anchored in the harbour for the purpose of cleaning their bodies, review and distribution of clothes.
In August my book-books will be published covering Irish history, the1798 rebellion, trials, voyage of the Atlas and the Hercules, the assignments and the times in which the convicts lived. The history of the colony is covered in detail. Naturally, my family (Murtagh and Michael Ahern) is a major part. it covers their murder of the Boland family in Limerick and trials.
Separate to the books will be a reproduction of the Atlas log. The Atlas arrived at 2pm on July 6, 1802. The book is in two volumes of 1,200 pages and includes many never before published documents and illustrations collected over fifteen years.
Please excuse the length and not intended sales pitch
The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 – 1842), Saturday 5 March 1803,
Execution at Castle-Hill. (1803, October 2). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 – 1842), p. 3.
ALSO ON THE HERCULES
Family Notices. (1804, April 1). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 – 1842
SYDNEY. (1806, January 19). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 – 1842
Under Wolfe Tone, the United Irishmen (who consisted of Protestants and Catholics alike) declared their belief in a peaceful future for Ireland in which Protestants and Catholics could live together in peace and with equality. They wanted to set up a French-styled democratic republic in Ireland, which was independent of Britain. They quickly gained support, although some, most notably the newly-formed Orange Order which was set up to preserve loyalty to the monarchy, were against them.
Irish Rebels to Australia 1800 – 1806
This database contains details of Irish convicts who were transported to New South Wales in the period 1788 – 1849.
Rebel remnants of the 1798 and 1803 Irish Rebellions were transported to NSW during the period 1800 – 1806.
The ships that these Rebels came in were:
- Friendship (1800)
- Minerva (1800)
- Anne aka Luz St. Anna (1801)
- Atlas I (1802)
- Atlas II (1802)
- Hercules (1802)
- Rolla (1803)
- Tellicherry (1806)
The exact number of Rebels sent cannot be ascertained due to the poor state of information on the Shipping Indents. Only the Minerva identifies all her Rebels on board. The highest figure can be put at nearly 800 while the lowest is conservatively placed around 325.
Following the demise of the 1798 and 1803 Irish Rebellions, a number of the leaders and high-risk rebels were kept either in Kilmainham gaol or in prison ships. The lucky ones were those that had been sent to North America.
Reprisals after the Rebellions caused great ill feeling throughout the troubled lands of Insurrection Ireland. The government could not contemplate releasing those martyrs of Irish freedom back to their native land.
These Rebel remnants were transported to New South Wales with the hope that none would ever return. However a few did manage to accomplish this task.
Governor King to the Transport Commissioners
HRA – Aug 1802
I had the honor of receiving your letters and their several enclosures dated
as per margin by the Coromandel which arrived here 13th June, Hercules 26th
June, Atlas 6th July and Perseus 4th instant.
The above transports were cleared of all the prisoners, passengers,
provisions and stores, before the time limited for that purpose was expired;
and the Commissary has furnished the respective masters with receipts for
all that was landed here.
The healthy state in which the Coromandel and Perseus arrived requires my
particularly pointing out the masters of those ships to your notice. It
appears by the log books, surgeon’s diaries and the unanimous voice of every
person on board those ships that the utmost kindness had been shown by the
masters and surgeons to the convicts. This, with the proper application of
the comforts Government had so liberally provided for them and the good
state of health all the people were in, induced the master of the Coromandel
to proceed without stopping at any port. He arrived here in four months and
one day, bringing every person in a state of high health, and fit for
immediate labour; and altho’ it appears that the Perseus necessarily
stopped at Rio and the Cape, yet the convicts were in as good condition as
those on board the Coromandel; nor can I omit the great pleasure felt by
myself and the other visiting officers at the grateful thanks expressed by
the prisoners and passengers for the kind attention and care they had
received from the masters and surgeons, who returned, an unusual quantity of
the articles laid in by Government for the convicts during the voyage.
I am sorry that the conduct of the Masters of the Hercules and Atlas appears
to be the reverse of what I have just stated. By the surgeon’s list, and
the masters of the Hercules and Atlas’s letters to me, of which I send you a
copy, you will observe the dreadful mortality that raged on board those
ships, exclusive of the numbers killed. Altho’ there was no mutiny on board
the Atlas, yet in every other respect the master of that vessels conduct
appears as much if not more reprehensible than the other. The miserable
state the survivors were in in both those ships on their arrival in this
port, being filthy beyond description, some of the convicts lying dead with
heavy irons on, many of them died as they were coming from the ship to the
hospital. These circumstances, together with the complaints made against
the masters by the officers, rendered it necessary to investigate the
necessity of their having to put in Rio de Janeiro and the Cape, and how far
the masters had infracted the charter-parties. The result of these
investigations are enclosed. The log books and diaries will be forwarded by
the first direct conveyance mentioned in my letter of the 23rd ultimo.
The master of the Hercules was necessarily tried by a Court of
Vice-Admiralty on two indictments, first for killing ten men in the mutiny,
and afterwards for shooting one man (a ringleader), it was alleged, some
time after the mutiny had subsided. On the first count he was acquitted,
and on the second he was found guilty of manslaughter, and was sentenced by
the Court to pay a fine of 500 Pounds to the Orphan School, and to be
imprisoned until it was paid. As a doubt arose in my mind respecting the
propriety of his being fined, I have given a conditional remission of that
part of the sentence which I have referred to the judge of the Admiralty
Court, for His Majesty’s pleasure being signified thereon; and that the
course of justice may not be perverted (if I am wrong respecting the fine)
the master is bound over to abide by that determination and to surrender
himself within five days after his arrival in the port of London.
The master of the Atlas having such a quantity of private trade and spirits
on board, appears to have produced most of the bad consequences complained
of in that ship. What that private trade consisted of , and the bulk
occupied on board, will be obvious from the enclosed report of that ship’s
I have judged it necessary to forward this by the Hercules, in case she
should arrive in England before my letters which I mean to send by the
conveyance pointed out in my letter of the 23rd ultimo
I have, etc
Philip Gidley King
SHIP ON WHICH ANN MORAN ARRIVED.
Mayberry Home Page
Wicklow United Irishmen
1797 – 1804
THE RISE OF THE DEFENDERS 1793-5
Index to the Colonial Secretary’s Papers, 1788-1825
Deaths and Mutiny on convict vessels provoke a scandal
Sydney, August 9. Despite the past disgraces of convict ships, and the regulations and warnings designed to improve their condition, two more vessels have arrived at Sydney in deplorable state, and with awful death rates.
The Hercules arrived on June 26 with the news that 30 convicts had died on the voyage and another 11 had been killed during a mutiny, with two dying later of their wounds and a third being summary executed by the captain.
The Atlas arrived on July 6, having lost 68 people through scurvy and dysentery.
Governor King described the ships as being "filthy beyond description. Some convicts were lying dead with heavy irons on, while many more died as they were coming to the hospital"
There has been an inquiry as to whether the masters had contravened their charters as convict carriers. The Governor noted that the Atlas was carrying liquor.
EXTRACT FROM http://www.ulladulla.info/historian/1804deaths.html
SG 19 Jan 1806. Last week a native informed Tarlington, a settler, that the skeleton of a white man, with a musket and tin kettle laying beside him, had been seen under the first ridge of the mountains. The settler accompanied the native, and found the skeleton, and as described, the bones of which being very long, leads to a more than probable conjecture, that the remains are those of James Hughes, who absconded from Castle Hill the 15th of February 1804, in company with 15 others, most of whom had recently arrived in the Hercules, on the ridiculous pretext of finding a road to China, but in reality to commit the most unheard of depredations; the consequences of which were, that the whole except Hughes were shortly apprehended, and 13 capitally convicted before the Criminal Court, of whom two were executed, and 11 pardoned. Hughes was an able active man, well known in Ireland during the rebellion that existed in that country for his abominable depravities; and it is hoped his miserable end will warn the thoughtless, inexperienced and depraved against an inclination to exchange the comfort and security derived from honest labour, to depart from which can only lead to the most fatal consequences
Leader in the 1804 Battle of Vinegar Hill – rebellion executed at Parramatta and hung in chains, Convict Hercules I 1802
By Jim Smyth
I also am descended from John Curtis and Ann Moran through their daughter Catherine and George Eccleston. I am their third great-grandson.
In two weeks, my wife and I will be visiting Ireland and I am hoping that I might be able to do a bit more research on the ground about Ann as she certainly seems to have been a remarkable woman.
I am trying to resolve a number of discrepancies between various items of information in my possession.
The best information seems to indicate that she was convicted in Trim in Co Meath in 1797 (coincidentally the year that John arrived in Sydney)in connection with political activities and that she was held in jail in Ireland for five years before being transported to Australia on the Hercules in November 1801, arriving here on 26 June 1802. One record in the State Library implies that the prisoners on the Hercules were convicted for offences in the “late rebellion” which can only mean the United Irishmen in 1798 from the context.
I should be grateful for any information you can provide that might assist with my research in Ireland.
While visiting my son and his family in London after Ireland, I intend to return to Bristol to undertake more research into John Curtis. I obtained a lot of information 18 months ago including records of the marriage of John Curtis and Jane Purrier and of the baptisms of all 11 of their children in St Philip and St Jacobs Church in Cheese Lane, Bristol. From these records, I managed to visit the three streets in which they lived at the times of the births of different children. For most of their married life they lived in Cheese Lane, near the Church. I suspect that as his accountancy practice failed and he got into financial difficulties, the family was forced to move to less salubrious accommodation.
I also managed to obtain copies of one press report of John’s conviction and death sentence at Gloucester Assizes for coining. The judge must have been feeling sympathy for John because another man convicted and sentenced to death at the same sittings was immediately taken for “execution of the sentence” but the judge commuted John’s sentence to transportation for life.
After returning to Australia in April 2008, I managed to locate descendants of John’s and Jane’s youngest child in New York.
Today I received an email from PHIL READY, who with his wife Lois, ( descendant of 2nd fleet) compiled READY OR NOT . Hours and hours he tells me in the Mitchell Library and many cemeteries. Phil’s work was one of the major initiating factors for me in this venture. He has given me full permission to use his research . Thank you, indeed, Phil.
ST JOHNS FEATURES THROUGHOUT THE FAMILY.
The Sydney Gazette and… Sunday 10 April 1803, page 4.
This being Easter Sunday, Divine
Service will be performed by the Rev. Mr.
Marsden, at St. John’s Church Parramatta, for the first time.
FROM PHIL READY’S “READY OR NOT”.
JOHN CURTIS – 1749-1821
At his trial March 1795 in Gloucester, England, forty five year old accountant , John Curtis, was found guilty of coinage. (forging coins) and sent to Portsmouth where he was placed aboard the prison hulk LION to await a ship for the Colony of NSW . Separated from his wife Jane and 10 remaining children who lived in the Parish of St Augustin Bristol, he was never to see them again.
1. JOHN CURTIS married 1773 to JANE PURRIER
THE CHILDREN OF JOHN AND JANE CURTIS
1 1774 ELIZABETH 2 1776 SARAH 3 1778 JOHN 4 1779 THOMAS 5 1780 ? 6 1781 JOSHUA 7 1782 FRANCIS 8 1784 WILLIAM 9 1784 BENJAMIN 10 1785 WILLIAM H 11 1787 ANN 12 1793 CHARLOTTE
During the 18 months wait, John and the other prisoners aboard THE LION were “employed as health and weather permitted” by instructions from Mr James Bradley and in compliance with the desire of the Master General in Ordinance, in removing mud and gravel , raising, sloping and preparing Glacis on Weevil lines near Gosport and other occasional works under the direction of the Engineer appointed to superintend the fortifications at that place. ( HULK RETURNS. PRO REEL 3557 AONSW).
On 29th September 1796 John was discharged from the LION , placed aboard the GANGES and sailed via Rio de Janeiro to New South Wales. Arriving at Sydney Town on 2 June 1797 he was sent to the Government Stores and put to work there. John’s skills at reading and writing would have been of great benefit at the stores and he worked so well there that three years later he was promoted to an overseer and a numerous stock of cattle placed in his care. ( Petition from John Curtis to Governor King – King papers Vol 1 pp 66-69 M.L.)
John had been overseeing the dairy for two years when he was advised that there was also to be a dairymaid at the dairy. Enquiries revealed that her name was ANN MORAN.
ANN had been tried at MEATH, IRELAND, during the Spring of 1800. Found guilty , sentenced to seven years transportation to NSW she too was held in custody to await a ship. On Sunday the 29th November 1901, two vessels, HERCULES with Ann aboard and ATLAS sailed from the port of CORK.
HERCULES – a two deck square masted vessel of 395 tons burthen built in Newcastle England was armed with 10 guns, carried a crew of between 32 and 35 men , 140 male and 25 female prisoners and several passengers among them MAJOR JOHNSTON who was later to figure prominently in the history of the Colony. The ship HERCULES also carried a detachment of the NSW Corps under CAPTAIN RALPH WILSON ( PRO REEL 413 WO 12/9901 FOLIO 160 ML)
GRANTED an emancipation by Governor King on the Anniversary of GEORGE III , JOHN CURTIS was now a free man but unable to leave the Colony.Very lonely he formed an attachment with ANN MORAN but, sadly missing his family and unaware that his wife JANE PURRIER had died in 1800, tried in 1803 to obtain permission to return home to them. Taking up his quill and paper, John wrote in his neat script to the Governor. ( I am presuming Phil Ready sighted these documents. )
” HIS Excellency Governor King,
Your humble petr, John Curtis begs leave to state that he is now at the advanced age of 60 years.
Marked by the hand of misfortune he was torn from a beloved family and a wife and ten children who live in the Parish of St Augustin City of Bristol, tried at Gloster March Assizes 1795 convicted and arrived in this Colony in the ship GANGES . That petr has been three years in his Majesty’s Stores and from that situation promoted to an overseer and a numerous stock of cattle consigned to his care.
Petitioner need not to a gentleman of your Excellencies perspicacity and distinguised knowledge point out his unwearied attention and strict integrity in the dishcarge of his duty suffice to say that thru your Excellencies experience Wisdom of Humanity you were pleased to extend his majesties gracious bounty of an emancipation on the celebration of H.M. anniversary on June 4 1802.
The petr situation and conduct so universally known to the gentleman of this country emboldens him to solicit their signatures as a testimony of his good behaviour in every situation since his arrival and trusting in the merciful disposition of your Excellency has ever invinced in the cause of justice, humanity and the unfortunate must humbly implore a further extension of the Royal clemency by suffering him to returning and spending his latter days with a long estranged family who with petitioner as in duty bound.
Under the signature of John CURTIS are the signatures of
1. W Patterson Lt Governor
2. Geo Johnston
3. Rev Samuel Marsden
4. Thomas Jamieson Supt of Govt Stock
John’s petition could not be granted as it was not within the Governor’s power to do so but ANN had already become pregant to John and later that year have birth to a daughter whom they named ELIZABETH, perhaps after John’s first daughter, Elizabeth, born in England in 1744.
The busy Governor had other things on his mind and a revolt in 1804 by the convicts at CASTLE HILL, only a few miles from John and Ann, made him realise how much his authority depended on the unruly NSW CORPS. The thought kept him on edge for he was having trouble with its officers and more especially with its paymaster JOHN MACARTHUR who wanted the Governor to comply with the CORPS’ wishes and become rich. By 1806 King had had enough and resigned as Governor.
- http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article625518 The Sydney Gazette and… Sunday 17 April 1803, page 3.
On Sunday last St. John’s Church, at Parramatta, was opened, and Divine Service performed by the Rev. Mr. Marsden ; who delivered an excellent Sermon on the following Text,
But will God in very deed dwell with men on the earth ? behold, heaven, and the heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much less this house which I have built !” II. Chron. c. vi. v. l8 : In the course of which he made some animated allusions to the structure of ‘Solomon’s Temple,, and afterwards gradually traced the progress of Religion in succeeding ages, adverting to tge many solid advantages that must be necessarily derived to this Colony, from a proper observance of the duties of christianity and a religious worship.
The concourse of persons that attended from all parts of the Colony, and the becoming silence that prevailed, added much to the solemnity of the service. Many Ladies of the first respectability were present, some of whom went purposely from Sydney ; and the Military Detachment on duty at Parramatta, were alfo partakers at the sacred festival. St. John’s Church may justly be stiled the finest building in the Colony ; the paintings are well designed, and tolerably executed. The Altar Piece, tho’ somewhat heavy, is nevertheless entitled to praise. The pews are not yet put up, but when they are, it will certainly become a handsome, well-finished. and commodious place of worship.
On Wednesday last, at St. John’s Church,
Parramatta, Lawrence Brady, baker to M.
Peat, spinster. She is the first young woman
married from the Orphan House.
- A STORY FROM THE NLA HISTORIC NEWSPAPERS OF A NOTE OF HAND INVOLVING JOHN CURTIS OF PARRAMATTA AND HUGH DEVLYN.
Whereas a Promissory Note of Hand drawn by John Curtis of Parramatta in favor of one Thomas Jones for the Sum of £40 Sterling, was about a twelvemonth ago lost at Parramatta, and has not since been recovered. Now this is to give Notice, that the said Note was negociated to me, Hugh Davlyn, of Richmond Hill, who do hereby acknowledge to have received from the above Drawer (John Curtis) full satisfaction for the same ; I do therefore forbid all persons receiving the same under any pretence whatever, as it is the sole property of the said John Curtis; any person rendering it up to whom or to myself will be handsomely rewarded. Hugh Davlyn.
The Sydney Gazette and… Sunday 3 September 1809, page 2.
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