Category Archives: 19th CENTURY IN THE COLONY


bells at condong 003




The Sugar Industry at the


(Macleay Herald, Aug. 12.)

For upwards of twenty miles the banks of

this river are dotted with patches of cane.

Commencing at Cudgen, six miles from the

Heads, and proceeding up the head of navi-

gation (about twenty-two miles further), small

plantations show themselves here and there

all looking vigorous and healthy. But it must

not be supposed that the total area of land

under cane is large because it extends so far

in different directions ; I suppose, at a rough

estimate the whole of the Tweed sugar lands

at present under crop scarcely exceeds 2000

acres. And notwithstanding that the cultiva-

tion is so scattered there are few mills to be

seen, the greater part of the landowners

being content with growing the cane and

disposing of the crop to the Colonial Sugar

Company, whose mills are erected in a very

central spot at Condong. There is no

difficulty experienced in carrying the cane

to the mill, temporary jetties being made on

the river bank in the fields from which it is

carted and shot into punts which come

alongside to convey it to its destination.

Cane-growers mostly receive 10s per ton for

their cane but to secure this price, the cane

must be trashed ; when untrashed 9s is the

price paid and there are some that think the

9s for untrashed cane pays best.

The principal mill on the Tweed River is

that owned by the Colonial Sugar Company

already mentioned. This company owns

quite a fleet of large punts, a steam launch of

considerable size, and a larger paddle-boat, all

of which work on the river ; and in addition

to these a larger steamer called the Terra-

nora, named after a creek which empties into

the Tweed a few miles from the Heads .



IT is hereby notified that WORK will be COM-

MENCED at the Company’s Sugar Mills on the

Clarence, Richmond, ano Tweed Rivers TOWARDS

THE END OF JULY. The hands will be engaged at

the Harwood, Chatsworth, Broadwater, and Condong

Mills, on TUESDAY, the 17th of July. The Southgate

Mill will not be worked. The season is expected to

extend over a period of from four to five months.


General Manager





Whereas, by reason of the difference of
climate and soil, many commodities pro-
ducible in this colony, such as wine, oil,
silk, Sec, are not produced in the United
Kingdom, and the skilled labourers requisite
for their culture or manufacture cannot in
consequence be obtained by the colony from
the mother country ; and whereas it is deemed
expedient to afford to such of the colonists
as may desire to employ their land and
capital in the production of such commo-
dities as aforesaid, the means of providing
themselves with the required labourers from
such foreign countries as can supply them :
His Excellency the Governor directs it to be
notified, that subject to the approval of her
Majesty’s government, and under the con-
ditions hereinafter mentioned, there will be
granted to settlers who shall be at the charge
of bringing into New South Wales, for their
own services, emigrants from the continent
of Europe, a pecuniary aid or bounty at the
following rates:

(1») -For a married man and his wife, neither

of whose ages shall exceed on embarkation
fifty years-£36.

(2). For each child, male or female, above

the age of fourteen years, for whose parents,
or either of them, the foregoing bounty is
allowed (but for no other children or un-
married persons)-£18.

II. Before any payments are made under
this regulation, the immigrants on whose
account they are claimed must present them-
selves before a board appointed by the
Governor to inspect them.

Each married man and each of his un-
married sons who shall have reached the
age of eighteen years, must produce to the
board testimonials of good character, and of
their being duly qualified for the particular
employments which they have been brought
to the colony to fill. These testimonials
must be signed by clergymen and respect-
able inhabitants of note in the place of the
immigrant’s former residence, and authen-
ticated by a certificate of the secretary to
the land and emigration commissioners in
London, that after enquiry that board has
seen no reason to doubt their correctness or

Every individual for whom bounty is
claimed, must produce a certificate, shewing
his or her parents” Christian names and sur-
names, and the age of which he or she is
known or reputed to be.; and this certificate
must be also authenticated by the secretary
to the land and emigration commissioners.

If the board shall be satisfied with these

documents, and that the persons presented
before them are within the prescribed ages,
of sound mind, of good bodily health and
strength, and in all other respects likely to
be useful members of their class in society,
and that they haye been duly supplied
during the voyage with a sufficiency of good
and wholesome provisions, and water, the
latter in the proportion’ of at least three
quarts per day for every emigrant, and with
reasonably comfortable accommodation, a
report lo that effect will be made by the
board, and so soon thereafter as it shall be
shewn by the person bringing out the emi-
grants, that be has removed them from

Sydney or Melbourne (as the case may be),
for the purpose of placing them on his own
property, a warrant will be issued for the
payment of the sum to which he shall be

entitled under this notice.

III. Any settler desiring to avail himself
of the bounties promised by this notice,
must transmit to the Colonial Secretary, at
Sydney, or to the Superintendent of Port
Phillip, at Melbourne, a list, specifying, as
accurately as circumstances will permit, the
number, condition, and calling of the per-
sons whom he may .propose to bring out. In
no case will bounties be allowed, unlesB the
claimant shall have made such application,
and shall have received in reply an official
intimation that (subject, as already stated,
to the approval of her Majesty’s govern-
ment) bounties will be granted on the intro-
duction of the persons described in his list.
The document containing this intimation
must be produced before the board by the
claimant, who will be required, at the same
time, to prove to the satisfaction of the
board, that the immigrants have been im-
ported in pursuance thereof. And in order
to guard against the inconvenience of long
outstanding claims against the government,

bounties will not be allowed unless the im-
migrants described in the application shall
be presented to the board within two <years
after the date of the notification -of accept-
ance by the Colonial’Secretary.

IV. To define the several descriptions of
labourers for whom bounties will ‘be allowed
under this notice would be impossible, and
an attempt to do so would be incoiiöi8t«-nt
with the object m view, which is to provide
the supply of labour requisite for the pro-
gressive tievelopement of the capabilities ot
the soil -as they may from time to time be-
come ‘further ¿known. It may, however, be
stated as a general rule, lhatithe government
will limit the allowance of bounty to such
labourers as are requisite for raising articles,
the produce of the soil, and for bringing
them into their simplest marketable -shape.
.In -illustration of this principle the cases of
wine and silk may be instdiiced. In the
former, bounties will ‘be given for all de-
scriptions of labourers necessary for the cul-
ture of the grape, and the manufacture and
casking of the wine. In the’ latter case,
bounties will be given for the labourers re-
quired for the production and preparation of
the raw material, but not for ils manufac-


Bounties will not be allowed under this
notice for persons above the labouring class,
such as overseers, nor for any labourers of
a description obtainable from the mother

V. The fund available *for the purposes-of
this notice being »very limited, it must not be
expected that ‘the government will be able
at once’to promise the payment of bounties
on every application which it may see no
reason to disapprove. In any case, how-
ever, in which the government may be re-
strained by no other cause thau want of
means from .giving an ¡immediate assent to
an application, such application will be
noted in the Colonial Secretary’s Office, with
a view to its being entertained in preference
to others of a later date, whenever the re-
quisite funds may be at the disposal of the

VI. It is to he distinctly understood, that
no quarantine oi other expenses whatever
attendant upon the introduction of emigrants
under this notice, will be defrayed by govern-
ment, excepting the bounties hereinbefore


VII. To prevent misapprehension and dis-
appointment, and to ensure a rigid adherence
to the principles of this regulation, it is
proper to state that the whole of the condi-
tions thereby imposed will be strictly con-
strued. Parties, therefore, who may intro-
duce immigrants not qualified by age, calling,
character, or otherwise, will do so entirely
at their own risk, and will have no claim on
the government to obtain the bounties offered
by the present notice.


His Excellency the Governor has been
pleased to appoint the following gentlemen

to be magistrates of the territory and its
dependencies, namely

Alexander Fitzgerald Crawford, Esq., of

Conungala, Macleay River.

Francis Townsend Rusden, Esq., of Lindsay,

Gwydir River, Liverpool Plains.

John Warne, Esq., of Fattorini’s Wharf,

Macleay River.



His Excellency the Governor directs it lo
be notified, that the Right Honorable the
Secretary of State for the Colonies has inti-
mated in his despatch, under date the 26th
June last, that her Majesty has been gra-
ciously pleased to approve and confirm the
undermentioned Acts, passed by the Go-
vernor and Legislative Council, in the ninth
year of her Majesty’s reign, viz. :

QtJi Victoria.

No. 31.-” An Act to continue for two years

‘ An Act to facilitate the apprehension of
transported felons and offenders illegally
at large, and of persons found with arms
and suspected to be robbers.'” (11th
June, 1846).

No. 32.-” An Act to continue for a limited

time an Act intituled 4 An Act for regu-
lating the conslitution of Juries, and for
the trial of issues in certain cases in the
Supreme Court of New South Wales ; and
further to amend the law relating to trial
by jury.'” (12th June, 1846).

No. 33.-” An Act to amend an Act intituled

‘ An Act to amend the laws relating to the
Savings’ Bank of New South Wales and
Port Phillip, respectively.’ ” (12th June,

No. 34.-” An Act to amend an Act intituled

* An Act to make provision for the safe
custody of and prevention of offences by
persons dangerously insane, and for the
care and maintenance of persons of un-
sound mind.’ ” (13th June, 1846).




At St. Aubin’s pound, Scone, on the 29th
day of March, from the estate of Francis
Little, Esq., J.P.-One white cow, branded
on off rump B; one red and white heifer,
branded off rump MW; one brindle and
white cow, branded off rump MW, a male
calf by her side; one red and white cow,
branded off shoulder H, near rump W, near
ribs like B inside Q, and B under it, a white
heifer calf by her side; one yellow heifer,
white belly and flank, branded off thigh SA ;
one red sided heifer, branded near shoulder
PM; one black sided bullock, short tail,
illegible brand near thigh ; one red and white
spotted cow, brand off ribs S.S, O under, off
thigh S, male calf by her side; one straw-
berry hoop horned cow, branded off rump
FC ; one red sided cow, branded near rump
13, a bull calf by her side; damages 3d.
each. If not duly released, they will be sold
on the 3rd of May, [13s.

At Singleton, Patrick’s Plains, on the 1st
of April-One brown sided cow, white back,
belly, and hind legs, branded JA, L over,
near rump, near shoulder 9, a red female
calf by her side, unbranded ; one yellow cow,
down horns, white back and belly, branded
off rump J reversed, and T, or IT, a red
female calf by her side, while on back and
belly, unbranded ; one light brindle sided
cow, off ear slit, branded near rump JA, L
over, a red female calf by her side, white
back and belly, unbranded ; damages 2s.
each ; one yellow poley cow, white on back
and belly, branded off ribs wy, o over, wy
under, off rump ST, near side neck O ; one
red and white spotted heifer, if branded not
legible ; damages Is. each ; one dark bay
filly’, branded near shoulder 7, off shoulder
C, long tail, black points, three years old,
14£ hands high ; one bay filly, small star on
forehead, black points, fistula on shoulder,
branded off shoulder JW, three years old,
14$ hands high. Also, on the 4th April
One dark red bullock, white on tip of tail,
branded near shoulder 5, near rump WM, off
ribs H, damages 3d. If the above cattle are
not claimed on or before the 30th day of
April, they will be sold. [14s. 9d.

At Jerry’s Plains, on the 24th day of
March, from Cockfighter’s Creek-One snail
horned brindle sided cow, white back and
belly, branded T over O conjoined off thigh,
an illegible brand like IA on off shoulder;
one red cow, branded T over O conjoined on
off thigh, SD off hip, an illegible brand on
off shoulder ; one brown sided steer, speckled
head and feet, white back and belly,.like IM
or IH on off shoulder ; one red strawberry
young bull, branded WO on near hip; one
speckled and white bodied heifer, red neck
and head, an illegible brand on near shoulder
like N or H; one black sided heifer, speckled
and spotted points, piece out of off ear, a
brand like L on off hip, an illegible brand
underneath same. If not released on or
before 23rd of April they will be sold. [12s.

At Cassilis, on the 24th March, from the
estate of George Bowman, Esq., Rother-
wood, for trespass-One red brindle snail
horned bullock, branded S, C over, near
ribs, 22, o under, thigh ; one. red spotted
bullock, branded Dy near ribs, LT, © over,
off ribB ; one white cow, branded FT, O over,
near ribs, if branded, 2 off rump; damages
6d. per head. Also, from the estate of H.
Scott, Esq., on the 29th March, for trespass
-One black bull, white flanks, unbranded,
about twenty months old ; one dark red snail
horned bullock, branded FT, O over, near
ribs; one brown sided bullock, cock horne,
same brand; damages Gd. per head. If not
claimed on or before the 23rd day of April,
they will be sold. [12s. 3d.



List of unclaimed letters addressed to
persons resident in the Hunter River district,
for the month of March, 1847 :

Akins Thomas, Gammon Plaina ; AU Mr.,

Maitland ; Alexander Luke, Peel’s River ;
Armstrong Wm., Maitland; Ayster John,
Liverpool Plains.

Baxter Mr. Joseph, Maitland {-Bowman Mr.,

Black Creek ; Brown Joseph, Muswell
Brook ; Brabten Mr., Maitland ; Brad-
shaw Charles, Merton ; Brite Mrs. J. N.,
Maitland ; Brodie, Esq., Newcastle ;
Brooker Mr. John, Paterson; Brown
Samuel, Raymond Terrace ; Buchanan,
Esq., W., Paterson ; Buckley John, Mus-
well Brook; Button George, Muswell


Calaghan William, Maitland ; Cameron

Samuel, Paterson River; Cameron Archi-
bald, Raymond Terrace; Carter Thomas,

Tamworth; Carter Wm,, Morpeth; Caton
Thomas, Maitland ; Chapman Mrs., Mait-
land; Clarke Mr. P., Peel’s River; Clarke
Mrs. T., Bolwarra ; Clarke Captain John,
Castlereagh ; Coleman Timothy, Peel’s
River ; Colley Mrs., Morpeth ; Collins
Edward, Richmond River; Corby William,
Scone ; Crisp M«”- George, Tamworth ;
CubbonMr. Peter, Maitland; Currie John,
Scone; CurtiB Mark, Morpeth.

Devine Mr. P., Morpeth; Dorey James,

Clarence River ; Doyle Martin, Maitland.
Emsworth William, Peel’s River; Eston

Thomas, Morpeth ; Evans Captain, New-


Flea Mr. James, Hinton ; Forster Mr. Joseph,

Plashett; Forster Mr. William, Jerry’s
Plains ; Foster, Esq., J., Scone.

Gill Mr. David, Tamworth; Goold Joseph,

Dungog ; Gorman, Mr. Jno., Peel’s River;
Gowers Mr. John, Maitland; Graham,
Esq., ‘Newcastle ; Goulding, Esq., John,
Manning River.

Hall William, Maitland ; Harnell Edward,

Liverpool Plains; Hancock William, New
England; Hassell Mr. John, Muswell
Brook ; Hickey James, Raymond Terrace ;
Hickey Timothy, Cassilis; Hudson Joseph,
Maitland ; Hughes Robert, Maitland.

Jackson Mr. R. J., Maitland ; Johnson G.,

New England; Jones Mr., Peel’s River;
Jones William, Surveyor’s Creek ; Jones
Joseph, Dulwich ; Jones Thomas, Macin-
tyre River; Jones Mrs., Clarence Town.

Kehoe Nicholas, Hinton ; Kendle William,

Liverpool Plains; Kill Charles, Raymond


Lances Mr. Thomas E., Cassilis; Langan

Mary, Cassilis; Langton Mr. Henry, New
England ; Leanghin Patrick, Morpeth ;
Levey Mr. S., Muswell Brouk ; Lewis Mr.
David, Peel’s River; Lowther Mr., Liver-
pool Plains.

Marsh Richard, Tamworth ; M’Alarey

Daniel, ‘Olarence River ; M’Greal Owen,
Manning Sliver ; M’Keachie A., Manning
?River ; M’Kinnon John, Bolwarra ;
M’Lachlan Mr. D., Muswell Brook ;
M’Maister Mr., Cassilis; M’Nair Joseph,
Maitland ; Moran John, Bengalla ; Mul-
lins Patrick, Maitland; Murry John,


Nixon ¡lohn, Scone.

O’Plaherty Mr. Edward, PeePa River; Oliver,

Esq., W. E., Eskdale; O’Neal Mr. Wil-
lina!, Clarence Town.

Palmer Mr. Henry, Maitland; Patterson

James, Morpeth ; Perrier Mrs., Morpeth ;
Pike Henry, Black Creek- Poison Hugh,
Manning River ; PrendfU Mr. Robert,
PeePs River; Putter Mr. M., Lochinvar.
‘Quin Mr. John,”Stony Creek.

Keeves James, Kirkton; Renar Mr. Daniel,

Jerry’s Plains; Robinson Mr. J., Tam-
worth ; Rodgers Mr. J., Maitland ; Rod-
gers Alexander, Tamworth ; Rogers Mr.
J., Clarence Town ; Rule George, Tam-
worth ; Ryan Mr., Black Creek ; Ryder
Mr., Hinton.

Searle Mr. James, Liverpool Plains ; Slack

Mr. W. J., Maitland? Slater Thomas,
Burwood ; Smith Mr. James, Scone ; Smith
Mr. Thomas, Peel’s River; Starkie Mr.,
Raymond Terrace; Strong Mr. J., Page’s


Tosswell, Mr. K. S., Namoi River; Tuck

Mr. James, Maitland ; Tye Charles, Mor-
peth ; Tye Mr. D. ; Tyne Edmond, Mait-


Walsh Michael, Cassilis; Waring, Esq., C.

A., Raymond Terrace ; Watkins William,
Morpeth Road ; West Thomas, Liverpool
Plains ; Wilson John, Merton ; Wolf Mrs.
Catherine, Newcastle.

Young Mr. James, Gammon Plains ; Young

John, Maitland.



State of the Female Factory, Parramatta,
on the 1st April, 1847 :

Under colonial sentence. 32
Not under colonial sentence… 55

In hospital. 16

Lunatics. 21

Total number of women. 124
Total number of children. 49



At 11 o’clock of Thursday, the 20th day of
May next, the Colonial Treasurer will put
up to auction, at the Colonial Treasury, in
Sydney, the licenses to occupy the following
portion of land, for one year, from the 1st
June, 1847.

The upset price of each lot is £5 per sec-

tion of 640 acres.

3. Gloucester, 800 acres, parish unnamed,
near Dingo Creek ; bounded on the north by
the Manning River.

Printed and published by Richard Jones,

at the “Maitland Mercury” Office, High
street, West Maitland.











This is a site of OLD NEWS COPY and if I am not mistaken has at least one lead to family members. PETER HOGAN AKA PETER MARK READY.

Here its its intro :

Welcome to Old News Copy.

Searchable Australian news index.

We are an information resource, providing copies of old newspaper articles, that we have indexed, from Victoria, Australia dating as far back as the 1800’s. You are able to search our archives and if you see something you like, you can use our order form to purchase that particular article(s).



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Buried Alive: Sydney 1788-1792

Buried Alive: Sydney 1788-1792

”Tis now about two years and three months since we first arrived at this distant country all this while, we have been as it were buried alive, never having the opportunity of hearing from our friends…’ Reverend Richard

Eyewitness Accounts of the Making of a Nation 


By Jack Egan

Climate and Culture Connections in Australia Neville Nicholls Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Melbourne

Some interesting influences of climate on culture in Australia inc 19th century .


The mid-19th century saw a succession of arguments about whether the Australian climate was
“healthy” (Nicholls, 1997). Just one of these debates concerned tuberculosis (then known as
consumption or phthisis). As early as 1850 Australia was being promoted as having a climate beneficial
to consumptives, leading to a “rush” of consumptives to the colonies. One medical critic of this
promotion was expelled from the Medical Society of Victoria for his “heretical” views. The debate then
raged between the medical profession and the Victorian Government Statist, Henry Heylyn Hayter, who
used his Victorian Government Year Books to attack the belief that the climate was favourable for the
cure of consumption. The Age newspaper took Hayter’s side, but the debate continued until the end of
the century. Writers encouraged emigration to the colonies by stressing the quality of the climate:
“What do our struggling thousands gain by emigration to such lands as Australia and New Zealand, and
what do they lose? For the foggy uncertain climate of Great Britain they will find one equally healthful
and invigorating” (Heatherington, 1883).



About the same time, on the other side of the world, a development in climatology which would have a
profound impact on the Australian economy was under way. After an injury forced him from active
service, Lieutenant Matthew Maury of the US Navy in 1842 took charge of the Navy’s Depot of Charts
and Instruments in Washington. While in this office he compiled oceanographic data from old and
current ship logs, to prepare charts of winds and currents, “for the improvement of commerce and
navigation” (Maury, 1857). His published charts and books were in immediate demand from sailors, and
led to a sudden reduction in the duration of voyages. Maury notes that the charts reduced the England-
Australia round trip from 250 days to 160 days, saving British commerce an estimated ten million (U.S.)
dollars annually (Maury, 1857, viii). The commercial importance of this increased understanding of the
climate of the globe must have had marked impacts on the Australian colonies.

australian women in 19th century poetry – Google Search