Spread the word Lynne….:-)
There is another journal in the Canberra archives about the voyage but unreadable except for an entry in Feb 1853, "Mrs Hurrell died today", referring to Harriet Hurrell, John Hurrells first wife, whist in quarantine….
Hi Lynne, please find attached my hurrell research. I thought you might be interested in reading this. My cousin Una Collins was going to England a few years ago and I asked her to visit the cemeteries in Cawston to find the grave of Mark Hurrell, my great great great grandfather (father of John Hurrell). On that visit she was unable to visit Cawston because of flooding….However on her next trip she and her sister, Marg, went to Cawston to search the cemeteries. They searched all day and almost gave up but decided to visit the church which had a burial ground. Guess what, as soon as they walked in they found his grave…Bingo, mission completed…..
There has always the myth in our family that we came here as convicts from the result of stealing a loaf of bread. However romantic that may seem this has never been confirmed.
When I started looking into the answer, I was quite excited at what I found and am happy to share with all
So, how did we come to Australia?
Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as the Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to develop often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
Recorded as Hurran, Hurren, Harrell, Harrill, Horrell, Hurrell, Orrell and others, this is an English diminutive surname of Norman-French origins. It was introduced into England at the Norman conquest of 1066, it derives from the verb “hurer” meaning to bristle or stand up, and was originally a nickname for a good head of hair. An example of an early recording of the name is that of Richard Horel in the charters of the abbey of Rievalux, Yorkshire, and dated 1154, and John Hurle, in the Oxfordshire Hundred Rolls of landowners in 1273. Later examples taken from surviving church registers of the city of London include Grace Hurrell who was married to Nicholas Reynolds on the 17th September 1627 at St Gregory’s by St Paul, London, whilst on May 11th 1648, William Horrell married Aphra Thomas at St Botolph’s Bishopgate.
There has always the myth in our family that we came here as convicts from the result of stealing a loaf of bread. However romantic that may seem this has never been confirmed.
When I started the looking into the answer,I was quite excited at what I found..
So, how did we come to Australia?
John Hurrell was born in 1828 in Cawston Norfolk, to Mark and Elizabeth Hurrell according to his emigration record. He died on 14th Janurary 1908 at Mcleay River, NSW. He also had cousins named John Hurrell. Mark Hurrell (John’s father) married twice, Elizabeth was his first wife, and Mary Warner was his second. He was an Agricultural labourer. Living Eastgate, Cawston in 1851 census, aged 53, widower with his son Thomas and Mark’s brother John age 60(pensioner – from services – Chelsea hospital)widower and John’s children Susanna and Ann M. I don’t know how many other children Mark had with either of his wives. John married firstly to Harriet Tenpenny Abbott, in Holbeach Lincolnshire England, in Mar 1/4 1849, Folio X1V, page 561. Then living at Sutton Crosses, Sutton St Mary, Lincolnshire in 1851. Occupation Farm labourer. Came to Australia on the Beejapore in 1853 with Harriet. Dreadful conditions on this ship with many deaths and illnesses. Harriet died 1853. John could read and write, and paid 2 pound for his and his wife`s passage to Australia. On immigration record at State Records NSW, was living in Long Sutton, Lincolnshire prior to emmigration, and knew no-one in the colony. Mother Elizabeth deceased prior to his departure for Australia. No children
of marriage to Harriet. Remarried: Ellen Crowe, 26/11/1854 in Parish of ST Lawrence, Sydney in the County of Cumberland, NSW (C of E)677/41B Witnesses: Frederick Louis William Herrmann of Castlereagh St, Sydney, and Jane Hermann of Castlereagh St. Age 37, Occupation Farmer at time of Thomas birth in 1865. Buried Frederickton Cemetery, McLeay River, NSW Row M. Church of England section. Ellen Crowe was the daughter of Michael Crowe, and was born in Dublin, Ireland in c 1831. She died at McLeay River on 12/2/1899. John and Ellen Hurrell had the following children; John jr b 1855 ? Sydney died 1875 McLeay River NSW Eliza Mary b 12/2/1858 Sydney d 3/8/1939 m William Sanders Lucy Jane b 1861 McLeay River, NSW m Frederick Sanders Mark Hurrell b 1862 McLeay River d 27/7/1910 McLeay River m Ruth Henry Mary b 1863 m William Price Thomas Dennis b 10 May 1865, Kinchela Creek, married Isabella Smailes Kerr Ellen Matilda b 1867 McLeay River d 1943 Ashfiled NSW James b 1869 McLeay River d 1946 Liverpool, NSW Ann b 1872 George b 1873 McLeay River d 1875 McLeay River Information on Lucy Hurrell and Frederick Sanders and family were given to me from Yvonne Szwedye website `For those who Came before` (Rootsweb). Lucy was documented as 38 yrs of age on her mother’s death certificate in 1899. Lucy and Frederick had the following children: Frederick William Sanders b 13/2/1879 d 27/7/1950 m Euphemia Nelson John George Sanders b 10/4/1881 d 10/11/1950 m Elizabeth Craig Maud Evelyn SAnders b 13/6/1883 d 14/6/1954 Clarence Macleay Sanders b 13/7/1885 d 15/5/1960 m Beatrice Dangerfield Meta May Sanders b 24 Oct 1887 d 22/9/1888 Clement Constant Sanders b 15/9/1889d 31 Jan 1961 m Ellen Woodward Janie Sanders b 27/10/1894 d 4/8/1903 Herbert Berdett Sanders b 6 Nov 1896 d 23/7/1916 The Sanders boys were the sons of William ‘Blackberry’ Sanders, b 15 Apr 1823 in Kenton, Devon, England D. 19 Dec 1910 M. Skimmings, Mary A. on 28 Aug 1848, D. 13 Nov 1882, and were 2 of 13 children born to William and Mary A.
COURTESY OF BARB MILLER.
BARB HAS GENEROUSLY PROVIDED ME WITH THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION:
Lucy Jane Hurrell married Frederick Sanders. Lucy was descended from JOHN HURRELL and his second wife. JOHN HURRELL was born in 1828 in CAWSTON NORFOLK, to MARK and ELIZABETH HURRELL according to his immigration record. He also had cousins called JOHN HURRELL. Our JOHN died on 14 January 1908 on the MACLEAY RIVER NSW.
John’s father was MARK HURRELL. Mark married twice. Elizabeth was his first wife. Mary Warner was his second. He was an Agricultural labourer living in
Eastgate, Cawston in 1851 census. Aged 53, widower with his son Thomas and Mark’s brother John aged 60 (pensioner- from services – Chelsea Hospital) widower and John’s children Susanna and Ann M. I don’t know how many other children Mark had with either of his wives.
John married firstly to HARRIET TENPENNY ABBOTT in Holbeach Lincolnshire England in Mar 14 1849 (Folio XIV page 561) then living at SUTTON CROSSES, SUTTON ST MARY LINCOLNSHIRE in 1851. Occupation Farm Labourer. Came to Australia on the BEEJAPORE in 1853 with Harriet. Dreadful conditions on this ship with many deaths and illnesses. Harriet died in 1853. John could read and write and paid two pound for his and his wife’s passage to Australia. On immigration records at State records NSW he was living in LONG SUTTON, Lincolnshire prior to emigration and knew no one in the colony. Mother Elizabeth deceased prior to his departure for Australia. No children of marriage to Harriet.
John remarried: ELLEN CROWE 26/11/1854 in Parish of St Lawrence in the County of Cumberland NSW. (C of E) 677/41B. Witnesses: FREDERICK LOUIS WILLIAM HERRMANN of Castlereagh St Sydney, and JANE HERRMANN of Castlereagh St Sydney. Age 37. Occupation Farmer at time of Thomas’ birth in 1865. Buried FREDERICKTON CEMETERY McLeay River NSW Row M C of E Section. ELLEN CROWE was the daughter of MICHAEL CROWE and was born in DUBLIN IRELAND in c 1831. She died at at McLeay River on 12/2/1899.
JOHN AND ELLEN HURRELL HAS THE FOLLOWING CHILDREN:
1875 MACLEAY RIVER
3/8/1939 WILLIAM SANDERS
1861 MACLEAY RIVER NSW
1862 MACLEAY RIVER
27/7/1910 MCLEAY RIVER
10 MAY 1865 KINCHELA CK
1867 MCLEAY RIVER
1943 ASHFIELD NSW
1869 MCLEAY RIVER
1873 MCLEAY RIVER
1875 MCLEAY RIVER
Census of 1841: England
By the 1941 census John Hurrell was 15 years old and living in Eastgate, Cawston, Norfolk UK with his father and uncle. His mother was dead.
By the 1851 census, John Hurrell was living in Long Sutton with his first wife Harriet.
In 1853 John and Harriett immigrated to Australia on the ship Beejapore among 911 passengers. Contemporary newspaper articles indicate that measles and scarlet fever caused 55 deaths of children in the crossing and another 52 deaths of children in quarantine.
The bottom ship is a photo of the Beejapore it was obtained from
The following was transcribed and provided by John Richards. http://www.cooma.nsw.gov.au/monaropioneers/fergus02/pafg01.htm Journal of a voyage to Sydney New South Wales in the ship "Beejapore" Capn. S L McLay from Liverpool Oct 12 1852. Arrived at Sydney Heads Jan 5 1853. Passage 84 days 22 hours mean time [by] W. Usherwood Sydney NSW ML B784 CY 1117 held by State Library NSW p1 October 12th 1852 Tuesday Having to embark so early this morning we thought it quite useless troubling ourselves to undress and go to rest? Matthew Willis and I therefore sat up and talked over our future plans on our arrival in the New World, which we intended visiting, and smoked a "mild Havana" until 2.30 am, at which time he called up his brother William and brother in law Phillip Scott Esq. Who after partaking with us of
Coffee which we had ready, we all trudged off to Woodside where we embarked on board the ferry boat which conveyed us to the landing stage S Georges Pier Head, where we met Cap. McLay, and thence taking the tug, which was to tow the good ship to sea, soon found ourselves on board the Beejapore, prepared to weigh anchor but before this could be effected, we were suddenly enveloped in so thick a fog, we were obliged to desist and await patiently until it cleared away. Which did not take place before 11 am. At which time the anchor was weighed and we proceeded under tow of the Dreadnought, down the river, previous to which Mr. Scott fearing he should not get back in time ^ to return home that evening left us. We proceeded through the Victoria Channel, passed the Bell Buoy at one pm and at 3 the steamer came along side, and after embarking Mr. Willis, the pilot and P2 four men who had stowed themselves away in the hopes of getting a free passage to Australia, she left us and after setting all sail including Topmast and Lower Stud sails we proceeded on our way with light Easterly and SE winds, at 8 off Point Lynas. Being both of us tired this evening we turned in early, feeling determined to make up for our want of sleep last night Wednesday Oct 13th On turning out this morning we found that the Cap. had decided to go by the North Channel the wind being still light from the Southwest with every appearance of its continuing so. This day also very hot with a brilliant sun, most of the passengers on deck – on enquiring the numbers I find there are on board this ship in all 1032 living beings, a considerable number for one ship to carry – pm passed South Rock Light South Copeland light this day light winds from South to South West. Thursday Oct 14th This day commenced with light winds which increased slightly towards afternoon and showed us quite plainly that if we could only get a fair chance we should most assuredly not be the last ship out to Australia of those sailing about these same time with us, as she very soon commenced P3 To reel off 9½ and 10 knots, when sitting in the cabin we scarcely thought she was moving. At 2 am passed the Mull of Cantyre and at Noon …B???? 6pm …P?? S??? Friday October 13th On turning out this morning about 8 We saw a barque considerably ahead of us which we very soon had the pleasure of seeing much further astern and before 12 was out of sight, a ship also the same – found the ship had been going all night 10 to 10½ knots though she is not yet in trim being several inches too much about the head. One PM still strong breeze from South course steered West by S ship continuing to run 10 knots ??? Latitude 54.32 N Long 13.26 W (JR 180 miles due west of Sligo) Saturday Oct 16th Still getting on splendidly, the ship having averaged through the night 8½ to 9 knots, we have indeed so far been lucky in getting so well clear of the channel and done so well since which will I trust continue – One of the passengers children died during the night. At noon this day by observation 52.7 N light winds ship only going 6½ to 7 knots which she was scarcely able to keep up all day the wind getting lighter. Sunday Oct 17th Slight winds and fine weather again, ship under all sail, passed another barque which we soon ran out of sight as we had done the others. This afternoon the Church service was read by Mr. Miles one of the passengers, who is appointed by Commissioners as Teacher of the Children on board towards evening winds increased ship going 10½ to 11 knots per hour. P4 Monday Oct 18th Strong breeze all night. Ship continued to make the same distance as last evening at 8 or 9 o’clock going 12 knots wind East steering SW by Sth but by observation at 12 46° 22" North Long by Chron 18° 49 W winds continue all day ship going 11½ to 12 Knots. Tuesday Oct 19th Heavy rain during the night, at 2 AM when the log was hove, sip was found to be going full 13 knots, weather squally, when we got up it was more moderate ship going 10 knots Lat by Obn 41,46 N Long
by a/c 19.24 W at 10 Pm heavy rain during which turned in Wednesday Oct 20th This morning on turning out found us to be nearly dead calm ship only making 3 knots several small showers of during the morning, weather very much warmer, we have now most decidedly escaped from the winter which was showing every indication of fast approaching ere we left Old England, and are now about in the latitudes of the Northernmost of the Western isles and have been visited by several land birds evidently from these islands, soon after dinner or about 4.20 ?? great excitement was caused in the ship by one of the lads coming to inform us that a shark was prowling about the bows of the ship, a hook was soon got ready P5 With a very tempting bait in the shape of a large piece of pork but his lordship was not to be done and would not come aft where the tempting morsel was awaiting him after the passengers had had their tea, they were all allowed to come on deck again, where they appeared to enjoy themselves right well in their respective modes most pleasing to them, as whilst the bulk were singing and dancing some few who evidently thought it wrong so to do, went forward and commenced singing psalms, the evening is most delightful the moon shining very brilliantly whilst scarcely a breath disturbs our sails which are lazily flapping against the masts. We are all cautiously hoping again for a nice breeze to drive us forward again at our old sped, but indeed we cannot complain having got this far after a run of eight days only having come round the North of Ireland. Just previous to turning in about midnight a splendid breeze sprung up which lasted all night We soon made up for our slow progress during the day as she again logged of her 11 and 12 knots Lat 39.26 N Long 20.34 W by a/c Thursday Oct 21st This morning on turning out, were glad to find the ship had kept up the speed reported in the conclusion of last nights remarks Although the wind at this time appeared very light sound she was still making 10 to 10½. At about 10 with great difficulty and straining of my eyes I discovered a vessel in the horizon and soon after a second which afterwards proved to be brig and schooner they were at 1 Pm both rather abaft the beam and speedily vanished P6 From our gaze, This day the ship has looked more like a furniture and bedding warehouse than anything else as the decks and all available places have been covered with the passengers bedding which have all been airing and purifying, in the evening the passengers were allowed another treat and dancing and singing has been going on as yesterday, we muster 2 violinists one of which plays on each side the decks??? And the people appear to keep them pretty well employed, about 8.30 passed a brig??? Homeward bound but it was too dark to signalize which we exceedingly regretted as we have been cautiously looking out the last two or three days to report ourselves to our friends at home; no Electric telegraph having yet been established or to my knowledge invented to enable ships far away ahead??? To communicate with the shore we must wait patiently until another vessel appears to convey our messages to the British shore which we hope for their sakes may not be long Friday Oct 22nd Lat by Obs 37.13 N Long by a/c 20.07 W During last night wind has been very light, ship only averaging 5 to 6 knots, this morning again presented to us another splendid sunshine but we had rather have, if our wishes were consulted a nice breeze to carry on again 10 knots, / what dis- P7 contented mortals men are here we are after coming through the North Channel right round Ireland and yet in 10 days ^from weighing anchor at noon of this day, we are in Lat 34.45 N that instead of grumbling and wishing for more wind, where it slightly fails us we ought to be very thankful for having got on so well and hope we may still continue to do so unto the end of the voyage Should such be the case we should make a capital passage, of which all on board are very sanguine, but it will not do to calculate upon any such thing lest our hopes should be dashed to the ground, everything on board goes on most satisfactorily much more so than one like myself totally unaccustomed to ships with such a huge family on board could anticipate, the passengers are all most amply provided for, indeed so much that it is really shameful to see the waste that many of the thoughtless beings make of their food the whole of which is of the very best description Such I am sure that 9/10ths of them never had before, There are some very amusing characters amongst the group one Mr. Miles the schoolmaster whose voice can be heard all over the ship, and who takes a very active hand in looking after the passengers and carrying out the general arrangements of the ship he is a very useful man on board but takes
cognizance of too many trifles, as he is constantly appearing before the Superior Sup. With some unfortunate culprit, another whose name I know not but whom M.M.W christened Phoebe, by which she is known on the poop, attends to our fowls various descriptions of live stock is quite a character in her own way. She will [be] invaluable to some Australian farmer with?? I doubt not soon get a situation p8 in that capacity. About 9 pm a brig was discovered on the starboard bow, which the Capt. Fancies is a Man of War brig from her appearance and the easy sail she was under nothing but reefed topsails, whilst we are under all sail, we showed a light to her, which was answered in the same way. Passengers dancing again as usual this evening Lat by Obs. 34.45 N Long by a/c 21.24 W Saturday Oct 23rd A fine morning again presented itself to our vision and on going on deck about 8 found a nice North Easter blowing which the Capt. And Mate both think is the commencement of he Trade Winds, that this is rather further N than we expected at this season of the years to meet them, all studding sails set and an immense amount of canvass we show. Ship going 9½ which was increased to 10 and 11 which was kept up during the day. We shall make another excellent days work – The evening being fine the passengers were all again allowed to "trip the light fantastic toe" which they apparently did to their hearts content. After watching them sometime we adjourned to the after part of the poop where we were much pleased with the singing of one of the female passengers Emily Bishop I believe by name who sang a song called the "Star of Glengarry" with very great taste and apparent feeling – she sang one or two others also but this was a gem, after which she slightly hinted how much pleasure it would give her, if the tall gentleman meaning MMW, who they had heard humming several tunes would favor them with one she would not ask such a liberty he just coming up at time?? Consented as ??? in conjunction with the Dr. and myself had asked for two or three after which Dr. Barnett’s say. But more of him anon. (vertical note appended Lat 32.29 W Long by Obs. 22.18 in the latitude of the Madieras) p9 (JR – Note this page is written in an entirely different hand) Sunday October 24th An Emigrants Ships decks are a singular sight at any time but today ours have been a perfect study, and a Painter might have sketched groups to his hearts content in every attitude and position during the various divine services which have been held throughout the day, – the Morning was beautiful, and as arranged yesterday, the Bell began to ring at ten o’clock for the Roman Catholics, this soon mustered the Irish, who kneeling down on the deck immediately commenced their matins under the guidance of a respectable man (one of themselves); all seemed very attentive and most of the females held her rosary in her hand, – the Service lasted nearly an hour; and then after an interval of a few minutes only, the bell again was sounded to summon the Protestants, – Mr. Miles mounted on some spare spars read the prayers and lessons of the day very well, the morning hymn having been previously sung by his daughters and the rest of the congregation, all was concluded before noon so that the dinner hour should not be interfered with . – At about 2 pm the bell was again in requisition and was this time responded to by the Scotch who mustered pretty strong, and appeared much edified by a long succession of hymns and prayers which Mr. Miles treated them to,- he appeared quite in his element in this service (being a Scotchman) and shut his eyes very tightly during the long rambling prayer, which operation appears quite necessary and almost half the battle in the Scotch mode off worship. – After their service a number of Methodists held a prayer meeting, but as the Cabin dinner hour had now arrived they had it all to themselves so far as we were concerned, but we have no reason to doubt that their noses and lungs held out as bravely as usual in sustaining that admirable imitation of the Bagpipe which they dignify by the name of singing. – Mr. Miles and his wife (our Ship’s Matron) dined with us, and the former afforded us much amusement by his extraordinary style of conversation, he is a tall gaunt man with a thoroughly Scotch face, his features constantly working from his efforts to bring out the long high sounding words, he tells us he has been a sub-editor of a newspaper, Superintendent of a prison, a schoolmaster etc. etc. and we fancy that in all three various callings he has kept one thing steadily before him viz gathering together of the longest words he can meet with, all which he has ready at a moments notice and summons to his aid when required with the utmost promptitude, – he and his wife have a room to themselves and on the main deck P10
(original hand writing continues) He having charge of the children generally as Instructor, and she of the single females.- The wind during the day kept very steady but about ten pm it deserted us and left us becalmed until about one am. When a light SSE breeze sprung up which seemed as we had been rather premature in congratulating ourselves on having got into the trades Lat 27.44 N Long 23.46 Do Monday Oct 25th About midnight the wind became rather variable and then shifted to SE from East which we had had all the previous day which continued flying about until about 8 pm when it became suddenly squally threatening much more, in TG Sails Main Sails Cross Jack?? At 18.30 the wind suddenly shifted and took us all aback, it was however very light, the Capt. Was fully prepared for such a move having got her under snug canvass. This was certainly a busy scene, the reducing of the canvass, the lightening was playing most vividly all round keeping the heavens in an almost continuous blaze whilst between the flashes the clouds were black as thunder which the intermittent light showed more distinctly leaving us in no doubt but that ere long we should have plenty of both winds and rain, such however was my impression, the rain shortly came in most copious torrents which quickly drove me below. The wind however I think had passed ahead of us, as we escaped it’s fury – at 10 it became more moderate and after 12 light variable winds again prevailed- We were most of us rather disappointed at the rain coming on so suddenly. Our Surgeon Superintendent Dr. Barnett had taken a fancy to sleep on deck and got his cot or rather one out of the hospital slung under the spanker boom, we were auspiciously hoping he would have got turned in and got a good drenching, I must however attempt to describe him which will give my reader, Trust ??? – any one take the trouble so to do some account of my reasons for wishing him, so good a wish P11 He is as I before said Surgeon Superintendent and he has the sole care and charge of the passengers, assisted by Mr, Johnson a surgeon, also a very nice fellow, Dr. B. is a stout strong looking man of about 5 ft 9 high, age about 40. sound face with dark hair and whiskers, and has the misfortune to be sadly hipped, after the first day on board, he took to his bead which he perseveringly kept until within a day or two, he certainly was rather sea sick but made himself much worse by lying in bed and taking nothing but brandy and water and occasionally a dose of champagne, since he has turned out, he has done nothing but sit or lie on the poop deck leaving Mr. Johnson to do all the work which he certainly has done most assiduously – This sadly to be pitied individual suffers greatly from acidity on the stomach, and cannot take wine without at the same time taking a dose of soda swallowing at the same time both bane and antidote, the amount of soda he has taken during the day must be considerable for one individual as he is constantly at it. Notwithstanding the delicate state of his stomach, since he has commenced to join us at dinner, the only meal he takes with us preferring his breakfast and tea on deck he generally chooses the richest things he can get. Which from the reported state of his digestive organs I should have thought quite unsuitable. During the very heavy rain which fell this evening as he could not sleep on deck he determined to have a shower bath so tying a towel round his throat and being habited in his oilskin coat and leggings he seated himself and uncovering his head sat out the storm, his son a very forward youth of about 15 as a matter of course the same, as whatever the father does, the son repeats, if he puts on a dressing gown, son does ditto, changes ditto, Whatever change the father makes the son always does the same. They are therefore always dressed both alike – (JR – note the following lines were struck though and then written over) This evening being very splendid ???? in all her glory being nearly full the passengers were ???? soon again on deck until nearly 11, which pleased them greatly we had ??? songs again (JR Overwritten with) I was writing this next morning and I find that the sentence which I crossed out, I have mistaken ??? ???? ??? evening Lat 24.27 N Long 24.59 W P12 Tuesday Oct 26th This morning the sun shone brilliantly which added to the noise? above our heads caused by the carpenter who was busy immediately over our heads, made me turn out a little earlier than usual, when much to my dismay I found it to be nearly dead calm, during the morning the crew were employed shifting sails i.e. In unbending the new and bending the second or summer sail, but a slight air springing up after we had got the mizzen sail clamped, the Capt. Would not lose the opportunity of gaining a little ground so left the others for another calm – after lunch we amused ourselves with a little pistol practice at a bottle suspended from the end of the spanker boom which I was not fortunate enough to hit once out of four shots. A brig in sight about 8 miles distance to
windward apparently man of war brig bound to the West Indies . After dinner a large shoal of porpoises were discovered playing about the bows of the ship. The harpoon was soon hunted up but before the man could get into the Martingale guys from which place he intended to make his murderous attack, as if knowing his intention, with the exception of one or two they all fled. He made a dart at one which he just missed – and had not another chance. This evening a splendid moon was shining and the passengers were allowed to remain on deck until 10.20 pm Lat Obs noon 22.21 Long by a/c 25.37 W Wednesday Oct. 27th On turning out in the morning was grieved to find that it had been near about dead calm all night, the ship of course had made very slight progress, a barque a little distance on our port bow, which (sic) after breakfast being then alongside we signaled and found her to be the "Peter Sinn" of and from Glasgow bound to Buenes Aries, he had been out 28 days he said, P13 So we have the consolation of knowing we had gained considerably on him, our friend of yesterday still in sight and has apparently gained a little on us during the drifting match of last night – after lunch amused ourselves firing at a target with a revolver belonging to Capt. McLay who was the only one of the group successful, after dinner some dolphins were announced alongside, which we soon attached a hook to one, the Capt. Got him almost on board when the snood broke and away he went, he then got the mains?? Which were by this time ready and struck one that had served some of the sailors who were fishing forward the same trick, this fellow was soon floundering on the ships poop, and we thus recovered one of the lost hooks which was firmly fixed in his jaws – the dolphin was soon cut up and a part of him in the frying pan, which we enjoyed very much to tea? – it is excellent eating, very firm and more like very tender veal than fish – At night still dead calm after a very hot day Lat by Os 20.30 Long 26.41 W Thursday Oct 28th Having arranged with Capt. McLay last night to have a bath this morning we were roused certainly much earlier than we anticipated being? At 5 am by him coming to inform us it was ready, MMW turned out first and had one then Dr. Barnett, myself and lastly Capt. McLay, it was indeed most refreshing as I had been tossing about considerably during the night, being so hot, tho lying with only the sheet over me and the side light and door of the birth open, the cabin windows were also open, we P14 Bathed thus early on account of the passengers coming on deck at daylight to commence their ablutions. Our bath was constructed by stretching a canvas curtain across from the forepart of the wheelhouse on the port side to the bulwarks, the Capt. Standing on the top of the house, armed with several buckets of water which he pored over us. he talked of making a shower bath in the after part of the wheel house but afterwards thinking of this plan thought it the best – after this MMW the Dr. and I turned in and had another engagement with Morpheus, he as usual conquering, we slept until about 7.30 when on going on deck found that Mr. Johnson had turned out at 6 and caught a rudder fish which we demolished at breakfast and found very good – another calm day, what little air there was being very variable, and about noon a light breeze sprung up from SE which rather revived our drooping spirits, as any wind id preferable to a calm sea. This evening the sky was magnificent and quite impossible for any one, who was never wandered far from old England’s cold clime to imagine, to accurately describe is even still more so, the sky to the west was one mass of crimson and gold, the clouds assumed a lacey shape, and colour the like of which if it could be conveyed to canvass would assuredly make the fortune of the lucky artist – I wish I was able to describe this splendid scene but such not being by any means my forte – I will not further attempt it. I have hitherto said nothing of the manner in which I spend any time, in the evening I read Samartine’s History of the Girondists after lunch occasionally a game of chess with MMW and after dinner some amusing work, talking tos?? Lat noon this day 20.3 Long 26.56 W P15 Friday Oct 29th This morning another calm of nearly so much to our horror, as we are now beginning to wonder what has become of NE Trades which we used to hear of, and which we believed to extend many degrees to the north of our present position, we have not seen them since we got on to their supposed position, we did at one time flatter ourselves, we had got them very early, but were greatly disappointed – Last night after the splendid evening alluded to in yesterdays account it came in rather squally, with thunder and
lightning wind again still SE and variable, nothing particular transpired today everything going on much as usual Lat 17.50 Long 27.18.30 Saturday Oct 30th During the night we have had a nice breeze from the east, the ship has been averaging 10 knots which we kept up until noon when it again fell very light about 5 o’clock saw a large vessel astern steering the same course as ourselves, and appeared to have a nice breeze whilst we were nearly becalmed, the brig also still in sight far astern and a long way to leeward; soon after we got a light breeze and saw no more of our companions. The moon not rising until 8.30 the passengers were not able to dance much, until that time, they however had a jig or two. Lat obs. 14,23 N Long Chr. 25.46 W Sunday Oct. 31st 14.43 25.25 This morning still fine, with a moderate breeze, about 8 am passed a large homeward bound vessel but too far off to signalize, to our regret as all were anxious to report themselves to the old Isle, we shall surely soon have a chance of so doing – Service performed again s described last week Mr. Miles gave the Scotch a sermon from IV Prov 2. v. a very rambling affair, we were this day visited by swallows which must have come from the Cape de Verdes P16 It will not I fear stay so long with us as out last visitors, a starling which I think I omitted to mention at the time it was on board 4 or 5 days and was becoming quite tame, when an unfortunate heavy rain caused it to take shelter in the hen coop, where it soon got nearly killed, and was driven out, we endeavored to restore it but in vain – after its death Dr. Johnson skinned and stuffed it to add to his collection – We passed the southernmost of the cape de Verdes Isles about noon yesterday not having sighted any of them tho Capt. Had some intention of sighting Antonis, but the wind being so variable, was glad to make the best he could of it Lat Obs. 11.43 N Long Chr. 25.25 Monday November 1st This month has commenced with similar weather, still light and variable airs from 9 to 12 inclusive, it was quite calm, the sun was also obscure that the Capt, was not able to get an observation – the swallow which visited us yesterday is nowhere to be seen Lat by a/c 9.52 Long 24.52 Tuesday Nov 2nd Light winds from the NE and variable nothing particular doing this day not even a stray fish to enliven us. It is almost incredible how dull a calm day at sea makes one feel. There appears nothing for one to do not any excitement of any kind – In the evening, whilst lolling about on deck I hastily jumped thinking I had discovered that much to be dreaded thing a ship on fire – my delight may therefore easily be imagined when on getting on my legs I found my ship on fire proved to be the moon rising most brilliantly about 10.15 – I merely whilst sitting down caught of an apparent blaze of light in the horizon, though some clothes that were drying in the rigging – which caused the P17 Mistake – the moon was soon high up in the heavens and diffused her full luster in rather reflected luster on all below within her range. – the clouds assumed divers shapes one large mass immediately ahead of us appeared like some immense mountain covered with snow which was in imminent apparent danger of being overturned by our masts Lat Obs. 7.52 N Long Chr. 23.7 W Wednesday Nov 3rd Turned out at 6 and had a bath which was exceedingly refreshing, sauntered about and read until breakfast time 8 weather very hot though I think not quite so oppressive today as yesterday when the thermometer in the shade was 84 – wind still very light scarcely any of it, very unsteady Lat Obs. 6.39 N Long Chr.23.7 W Thursday Nov 4th This morning on going on deck saw a ship on the starboard bow, which Capt. McLay asserted to be the "Priscilla" though he had seen her but once in Liverpool and now she was about 6 miles distant. MMW and Dr. Johnson thinking it almost impossible or perhaps carried away with the hopes that it was not, laid a wager with Capt. McLay to this effect as the ship was not to leave Liverpool until two days after
us. Much however to our disappointment on getting abreast her about 12 we ascertained the Capt. To be right. She left on the 14th Oct 2 days after us, and had come through the South Channel, and had nice east winds, whereas for several days past what we have had has been principally S and SSE his passengers were sickly but not dangerously. The masts of the other barques and a brig are also in sight to windward, too far off to signalize Lat Obs. 5.44 N Long Chr. 23.40.30 W Friday Nov 5th The wind having been very light during the night the "Priscilla" was still in sight this morning, 6 or 7 miles to the leeward, we are anxiously hoping for a breeze when I am sure we shall soon leave her, the wind still from the SSE ship lying SW by W ½ W which is very annoying as we are already further to the west than we wish however it cannot be helped we cannot have everything we wish for. My thoughts at dinner wander homewards as though we dine at 3 being so far west of Greenwich we shall be taking that meal about the same time – pictured you all sitting around the table at desert and wishing Emma many happy returns of this day which I did not forget and although some time fancied I heard someone say I wonder where William is, and whether he will remember. – Nothing particular occurred this day Lat Obs 4.20 Lat a/c 4.24 Long a/c 24.48 W Saturday Nov 6th Nothing visible of the Priscilla this morning and I hope we shall see her no more this passage – wind still continues variable principally from SSE the ship has lost in the last 24 hours i.e. from noon yesterday to noon this day 20 miles latitude, we have certainly gained a little longitude, but this is disheartening losing ground. We are now anxiously looking out for the SE Trades and I sincerely trust we shall have more of their company than we had of the NE as we scarcely had any of their society which was greatly to be lamented- This afternoon the passengers being all on deck I went below with Dr. Johnston and MMW P19 And visited both decks they looked exceedingly clean neat and comfortable. They had just been fumigated, which is done by burning tar?? In swing stoves suspended in different parts, these have the effect of purifying the air and dispersing any foul air that may be collected from so many people congregating together, this process is frequently repeated and certainly is most beneficial Dr. Barnett the Surgeon Superintendent actually felt himself sufficiently well to go below this afternoon this being the second time only. I believe that he has been there since we sailed – is such an important event that I cannot allow it to pass without being unnoticed herein. Lat Obs. 4.42 N Long Chr. 22.37.20 W Sunday Nov 7th This morning another ship visible a little ahead on our lee bow, which by breakfast time we were alongside our signals were hoisted but as they were going aloft she tacked and consequently all on board were too busy to reply thanks at this moment our breakfast being announced we turned our attention to it and were just finishing when we were informed she was answering us. She was now on the same tack as ourselves, heading ESE and proved to be the "Travancore" from Plymouth to Swan River, had been out 37 days, which I must say was a great consolation to us as we have been grumbling sadly of only being this far when out 25 days, I am now again in the hopes we may pick up some of the ships yet that sailed before us as it is evident that a number of ships have been detained hereabouts for some time. There are also P20 Several other ships in sight but not near enough to signalize – with the exception of a Hamburg barque but she not having signals could not communicate with her we therefore exchanged colours shaped on leaving the "Travancore" also astern tho the wind is still very light – Services as usual today I do not yet know what creed Dr. B is and I do not think he belongs to any in particular but he certainly pays more attention to the Roman Catholic service than any other. Winds still continue very light and we so make very little progress Lat Obs, 4.5 N Long Chr 21.54.30 W Monday Nov 8th Still tacking about the winds being very variable that we get but little Southing. It is indeed truly wearying work to be knocking about here so long and making so little headway as for the last 6 or 7
days we have only averaged about 1 degree Southing per day the whole of which with a fine wind might have been done in 1½ days. It must be tiresome work for any Capt. Who has no one but his officers to speak to day after day when as we are almost becalmed and with light winds against us – However some of our neighbors of yesterday were worse off than ourselves, so let us hope for better things, and that when once across that once formidable barrier to all who had not previously been, we may have a good trade wind. Nothing particular today, except that the Capt. had to reprimand one of the seamen this evening. For insubordination Lat Obs 3. N Long 23.4/15 W Chr. P21 Tuesday Nov 9th Still very little wind, ship heading as usual SW to SW by W towards noon we had a little more wind, ship again going 6 to 6½ knots which son after fell off, we shall I fear make another very poor days work, but as we at noon, were in 1.45, I feel we hope early in the morning to cross the line by which time I trust we may have got the SE trades – Lat by Obs 1.22 N Long by Chr. 24.28 W (margin annotation – Spoke ?? the "Wm. Cornwall" from Calicut per Liverpool) Wednesday Nov. 10th On turning out this morning was glad to find a nice steady breeze which I trust will continue and prove a good trade wind, we crossed the line between 9 and 10 am at noon were 0.16 Sth cicos? And show for the first time am in the Southern Hemisphere and trust I may see a good deal of it before I re cross the boundary. My anticipations of sending a letter home is now vanished as we have now got a nice steady trade SSE that of course we should not think of stopping for any such purpose were a ship to appear, nor would our friends be likely to do so were we inclined – MMW and self are practicing chess and occasionally play a game out of Staunton by way of improvement and getting up to some of the dodges. A vessel in sight considerably to windward, too far to signalize Late Obs. 0.16 S Long Chr. 25.39 W Thursday Nov 11 This day nice steady trades from SSE ship close hauled nevertheless she is making her 8½ to 9 knots, which is a great relief after so many calm days with light and variable winds. Distance seen from noon yesterday to noon today per log? 286 miles Lat Obs. 2.54 Long Chr 26.39.15 W P22 Friday Nov 12th Fine trade winds still from the same quarter we are now getting ahead again as on first standing. Have not seen any ships for some days and our chances of so doing now lessens considerably. At dinner were rather astonished by the Steward bringing in two letters, which proved to be from Mr. Miles the schoolmaster, one was for the Capt. The other for the Doctor. Distance run for today per Log 209 miles Lat 5.35 S Long 28.39 W Saturday Nov 13th Nice steady trades from SSE ?? SE. Ship averaging about 9 knots. She appears to get over the water most magically as the wind is so light it is almost impossible to believe she can be going at that speed she is also so motionless – nothing particular transpired today everything going on much as usual Lat Obs. 8.43 S Long VChr. 30.5.45 Sunday Nov 14th Wind and weather the same as yesterday. a homeward bound schooner was descried dead to windward, nearly hull down. Too far off to have any communication with – Service as usual today. The weather has I think not been so appallingly hot since we crossed the line, owing I suppose to our having had a nice breeze which has rendered it very pleasant. As we manage to get a nice draught under the awning Lat Obs. 12.5 S Long Chr. 30.57.45 P23 Monday Nov 15th Nice steady trades, ship going 7½ to 8 knots this morning, she has been making rather more than this during the night – about noon the wind fell off, and we had very little during the afternoon until 9
o’clock when we again increased our speed to about 8 to 9 ½ knots. The evenings are now much shorter than at starting as it is now light until about 7 pm and we shall I expect soon have it light much later if we continue to make good Southing we have been making a little more easting today, having been steering about S by E which is of considerable service having got quite as war to the Westward as we wish – The sunset is very beautiful, and for several evenings past have seen two Magellan Clouds which I have not previously mentioned, as I wished to have a better view of them, as the further south we get, the more distinct they will be . I shall therefore for the same reason still postpone my description until obtaining a better view. Lat by Obs. 15.9 S Long Chr. 37.2.45 W Tuesday Nov 16th The SE trades have been so far much more favourable to us then the NE which we saw and felt very little. I trust they may still continue so and turn us well into the Westerly winds – This morning Dr. Barnett has been fully employed having had more trials and complaints than any day since we left. The principal case was a quarrel last night between P24 Miss M Miles and Miss Warren. The former who is the matrons’ daughter and assists her in the performance of her duties had been informed Miss W had made some remarks respecting her of which she did not approve, and thought proper to call her to account, then to attempt to strike at her, unfortunately for herself instead if hitting her struck her own fist violently against a post, which would not I apprehend tend much to improve her temper which does not appear to be the sweetest in the world. The sun is now quite vertical and our shadows at noon were just the size of our hats there being nothing visible on the decks but a shade the circumference thereof. Fortunately there is a nice breeze also which keeps the air cool, that this heat is not so great as we have felt it since we started. We still continue prospering very nicely and this morning Capt. McLay expects to sight Trinidad and Martin Rocks Lat by Obs. 17.54 S Long 29.42.45 W Wednesday Nov 17th True to his reckoning, at daylight this morning Martin was visible about 15 miles leeward, having been called up about 5.15 am I turned out and was gratified with the sight thereof the principal rock stands in Lat 20.28.30 S is a large barren rock tenanted by birds only and is surrounded by 5 small rocks. I will annex a rough sketch thereof which I took in my memorandum book which may I hope give some little idea of them, though my powers of drawing are very limited, never having done anything from nature p25 Martin Vas Rocks bearing from us W distance 14 miles about (sketch omitted) The rough draught from which the above is copied was taken soon after 6 just after sunrise, by the light of which we were able to see the barrenness of the rocks and also the detail of the sea presented to our view as the ship was going tolerably quickly through the water ^ 10 knots and the distance we were from the rocks I had not much time for sketching as every minute presented a different appearance: between 9 and 10 o’clock a ship was descried about 10 miles ahead on our weather bow, which as the day wore on we were gratified by seeing we were rapidly approaching and about 2 PM found we could signalise she being then a little ahead and about. Miles to windward and she proved to be the "Regina" barque bound from London to Port Jackson 56 days out and as we have only been 36 have again the pleasing satisfaction of finding we are coming up with several ships having gained 20 days on this, finding we are bound to the same port the Capt. Asked us to report him which we shall have great pleasure in doing and trust we may not diminish our difference in passage thus far. At about 4 pm the wind fell and we had nothing but very light breezes for remainder of the day Lat by Obs. 27.77 Long by 28.19 W P26 Thursday Nov 18th Winds still very light, which we must I suppose now expect, being now about out of the SE trade winds which by the bye have been for the last few days E, ENE and this morning NE and as I said above very little of it. This weather lasted all the day – As Mr. Wells the Mate as is customary I see inserts in his log "Pumps carefully attended to". MMW and I having been speaking of the short time required to pump her out, determined to time the operation, and pulling out his watch found that it occupied them 15 seconds only, a very satisfactory thing – No fish or birds to be seen. I quite expected to have seen far more than we have long before this – Whilst sitting in the cabin immediately after tea, we were alarmed
by fearful shrieks from the ‘tween decks, and rushing on deck fearing the ship was on fire, were horrified to find that one of the female passengers, who had been by the Surgeon Superintendents orders confined below for the past week in consequence of repeated misdemeanours, had attempted to take her life by strangling herself with a rope, some of the other passengers fortunately going down gave the alarm in ample time to save her, – she was afterwards taken into the hospital then kept handcuffed until a straight jacked could be prepared for her – the Doctor put the fiddler to work as soon as possible, to get the passengers to work dancing and thus detract their attention as much as he could from this sad affair. – The moon is getting bright again and thus gives them a nice long evening Lat by Obs. 23.11 S Long by Chr. 26.17.30 W P27 Friday Nov 19th Capt. McLay informs one that we are now out of the tropics, having bid goodbye to them about 12 o’clock last night, and we are most certainly in the Variables again as there is scarcely any wind. This morning the Sailmaster was busy making a straight jacket for the girl which when finished was put on her in order to prevent her making any further attempt . The sailors were occupied changing the remainder of the sails, the ship is now clothed in her summer sail 0 and we have studding sails out on both sides in hopes of catching a breeze but I regret to say there is very little – The weather is much hotter today awing to the nice breeze we have had through the tropics have not felt the heat nearly as much as anticipated – if this calm continues we shall have it hot enough I expect to satisfy anyone – I omitted in yesterday’s remarks to state that after dinner we amused ourselves with some pistol practice with MMW’s weapons and was much more successful than with Capt. McLays revolver as indeed we all were – Employed myself this morning in marking the remainder of my linen purchased in Liverpool which I did not get completed the other day. A solitary bird hove in sight this afternoon, but did not venture within range of our guns, I hope it may be the pioneer of plenty others, as we may now expect to fall in with them. Along swell has set in this evening which I hope id the forerunner of a breeze from that quarter Lat Obs 24.31 S Long 25.22.30W Wind what there is still from NE until 11 am, whence it came NNW} Course SSE P28 Saturday Nov 20th We are still doomed to disappointment as it is still calm, and has been nearly so all night, we have certainly had astonishing weather since leaving England having only once had a single reef in the topsails and now out 39 days Lat 25.12 S Long 24.35.13 W Sunday 21st (Margin annotation – Sunday Nov 21st Services performed as usual Mr. and Mrs. Miles dined with us again today Dr. Barnett and the former had another long discussion, they both appear to be jealous of their rights and privileges, and frequently allude to their instructions. Mr. Miles certainly thinks his power is much greater than it is in reality, which must I think arise from his having been requested to send a report home from the Colonies, detailing the account of the voyage. I endeavoured to draw Dr. B’s opinions on Roman Catholicism and though he would not say much am convinced they are more favourable to this system than any other, though he told me the other day he never attended any place of worship at home considering it infra dig – Our stewards both of them got very drunk before dinner, though the Capt. Gave them a severe reprimand last night for the same offence, in consequence of which they were both sent forward – and one of the boys attended at dinner – There was a nice little breeze from 9 till noon during which we were going about 8 knots. Wind NNE Course SE by S after which it cam variable about NE and we gradually fell off to 3 knots at which we were going when I retired from this very quiet scene. We are getting quite tired of this long calm and anxiously hope it will not last long. A heavy swell today Lat by Obs S 26.5 Long by Chr. 23.27 W P29 Monday Nov 22nd On going on deck about 8 this morning I was delighted to find we had got rather more wind and that the ship was again going 7 knots which makes all hands more cheerful – Two brigs head considerably to windward apparently homeward bound, but one of them we discovered after breakfast had tacked away steering the same course as ourselves, that she must have bore up to speak to the other vessel, we
soon passed him though at some distance off she having signalised to know our Long., it was given him, he did not appear to make it out as he never hauled his flags down whilst in sight, after leaving ours flying for some time, we enquired what ship it was but got no answer – the Long. given was 22.30 this being about 10 am. Naval promotions and appointments Boy Jack to be steward vice John Roland dismoted John Roland to be cook vice Sick Two birds of the Albatross species called Shearwaters followed us this afternoon but to our mortification would not come within shot, whether they smell the powder in store for them or not I can’t say, but presume they get too well fed from the stuff thrown over by the passengers to venture too near the ship – In consequence of he change of our stewards we altered our dinner hour, that instead of lunching at 1 and dining at 3 we now dine at 2, the chief Mate dining with us and the Second immediately afterwards. The officers used to dine before our lunch, this I think is a better arrangement as our two meals followed so close upon each other, our appetites were quite spoiled for the latter Latitude 27.11 S Long 31.59.45 W Wind NE Course SE ½ S P30 (Note this page written in the other handwriting) Tuesday November 23 It is now evening (8pm in fact) and the writer has just left the deck after enjoying a sight of one of the most magnificent sunsets it is possible to conceive. Any attempt at description would be absurd as the splendid and changing colours could not be named or represented by the most skilful painter, and therefore he will merely say that the scene was gorgeous in the extreme and leave the rest to the fancy of the reader. It was sad to find this morning that the wind out of our neighbourhood, or rather the air was so light that we had to only been going about two knots all night, but the tedium of the calm was somewhat lightened by the fact of a sail being in sight which proved to be the "Rob Roy" from Liverpool bound for Calcutta, as we know she sailed some days before us, we are inclined to think the winds have been very light here for some time particularly as she is reputed to be a fast ship, After dinner it was dead calm so by way of a change the Capt. Ordered one of the quarter boats to be towed and we (that is all the Cabin Passengers) got into her along with some of the crew to have a pull and look at our home, this peak seemed to cause intense excitement amongst the Emigrants all being anxious to see what was going on and speculating on the probable object of the trip, the rigging swarmed with them from stem to stern and they cheered most lustily as we pushed of from the ships’ side which we acknowledged by taking off our hats – After leaving our vessel about half a mile we pulled round her and all agreed that she looked very well with her increased spread of canvas idly beating against the Masts. The passengers were all ready to receive us on our return, and we found that their lungs had not been all affected by their previous exertions as the cheering recommenced and was assisted this time by the waving of handkerchiefs, children’s dresses, and etc by way of flags, -on gaining the deck we were P31 much amused by their remarks, on one asking with great gravity "is Sydney a wild looking place", and another regretting that we had come back as empty handed as we went. The affair was evidently talk for the rest of the afternoon, but towards tea time a new excitement was offered by some of the females "dressing up" in fancy style and dancing in the centre of a densely packed ring of admiring spectators, we viewed them from the poop and had a hearty laugh at their strange appearance. We are hoping we do a little better tonight in the way of progress than we have had a chance of doing for the last day or two as a nice little breeze has sprung up since 8 am and now, and we are already moving along 4½ knots which may probably be increased during the night tho the Capt. does not seem to think there is any appearance of more wind at present Latitude 28.57 S Longitude 20 38.30 W (resumed in the original hand) Wednesday Nov 24th Much to our satisfaction on rising this morning we found that the ship had averaged about 4½ knots since we left her decks for our cots last night. The "Rob Roy" at breakfast time still in sight having gained somewhat on us during the night, being at this time on our weather quarter about 6 miles windward – about 6 o’clock, I suppose she was about 8 or 9 miles astern and catching the freshening breeze first, mended her position as above named, at 8 we too caught the breeze and increased our speed to 7½ – at noon the "Rob Roy" was topsails down and at 3 was out of sight astern – this ship having made her last Calcutta voyage in 7 months, we take some credit in having thus beaten her –
After dinner we amused ourselves shooting at some birds which were reported to be Cape Hens and a solitary Albatross but were not successful, as they were very shy and would scarcely venture within shot. The wind at noon freshened again having rather failed us at 10 when we were only going 6 knots, and though close hauled we have been going 8 knots since Latitude 29,39 Long 20.32.15 W P32 Thursday Nov 25th Another calm day proves how little it is to calculate upon anything like steady continuous breezes in these parts. At 8 am we were only going 4½ knots which gradually decreased to 4 3½ and 3 each hour and at 12 only 1 knot, after which it was dead calm for the remainder of the day or until about 8 when a slight air sprung up and carried us along about 1½ knot This morning I saw for the first time a Cape Pigeon a few of them hovering around us all day together with Albatross and Cape Hens at which we got an occasional shot, but did not kill any though some of them were hit – Nothing particular today transpired Latitude 32 1 S Longitude 20.43.15 W Friday Nov 26th The wind has been very light all night, ship only making 2½ to 3 knots, wind form SSE steering East, until this morning when it becoming variable were obliged to go SES – about 12 the breeze having freshened a little we increased our speed to about 5½ knots I wish I could add that before evening we had doubled that rate but such unfortunately was not the case, the reverse being the case as at 7 we had fallen of to 2½ and 8, 1½ – A vessel in sight on our lee bow which by about 10 pm was just hull out consequently about 18 miles ahead of us. I trust the morning will bring us alongside her, as we have hitherto had the good luck to pass everything we have seen- The moon is very bright tonight being full, and the sky perfectly clear with every appearance of fine weather Latitude 32 3 S Longitude 19.54.30 W P33 Saturday November 27th This morning about 6.30 I was awoke by the Capt. Informing us we were very near the ship that she was signalising, she proved to be the "Condor" belonging to Gibbs Bright of Liverpool and bound thence to Port Phillip we left her in Mersey expecting she would sail within the same or the day after ourselves, he reports having sailed on the 16th at breakfast time we were close alongside and the Capts. Were conversing through their trumpets. The Condor reported having been in company with the Argo and Rob Roy both Liverpool ships, the latter the same as we were in company with — Capt. Leighton of Condor says the Beejapore is the only ship he has seen this passage that has outpaced, we have not yet seen any – breakfast being announced we adjourned below to discuss it, the passengers of Condor of which there were a great number on the poop appearing to do the same – on our return to the deck we found ourselves ahead of our neighbour and the Capt. ordered the cannons to be fired which were done across her bows, after some time they returned our salute which being acknowledged with another, our Ensigns were lowered and we went on our way in triumph – at sunset the appearance of the heavens was truly magnificent the western sky being thoroughly illuminated, one blaze of splendour, in the midst of which the "Condor" appeared on the horizon which greatly added to the scene, standing out in such bold relief there from – we are still gradually leaving her, but she is the most formidable antagonist we have had, but is now a long way astern – I trust in the morning will be out of sight . Had some shooting today, birds being more numerous than before, I had the satisfaction of shooting the first bird on board, an Albatross – Wind since noon been westerly Course SE by S fresh breezes Latitude 33 26 S Longitude 17.53 W P34 Sunday Nov 28th On rising this morning found another ship in company with which the Capt. Had been signalising, she proved to be one of WWS Lindsays’ ships, the "Alipore" bound from Dartmouth to Melbourne out 46 days she reports having spoken to the "Dundonald", "Try" and "Vibilia" we also gave a list of those vessels we had seen, reporting the "Condor" in company yesterday this ship and the Alipore will be I think well matched though I fear there is not much chance of their falling in with each other now the Condor being consistently to the westward they may so do in running down their Eastings – The Capt. Also compared their Greenwich time of which there is a difference of 36 seconds our chronometer
being in advance of the Alipore’s. This day we had no service owing to continuous rain – but have caught a great deal of water having had the awning spread for that purpose – Whilst at dinner we were caught by a sudden squall at which the Capt. and mate simultaneously rushed on deck, and fortunately no damage was done, we had strong breezes with squalls all day after this, and soon had to reduce our canvass at 9 am were under double reefed topsails wind SW to SSW Sun Obscure Latitude by a/c 35.39 Longitude 15.13 W (Margin annotation) We are now to the South of the Cape which the Capt. Says we passed about midnight, about 1500 miles to the East of us. Monday Nov 29th About 5 this morning the wind moderated when the top gallant sails were again set aboard and at 8 the topmast studding sails – at breakfast time 2 vessels well in sight which proved to be the whalers and one of them having his fires in full operation had evidently had some recent sport. They were cruising about under easy canvas – and appeared to be American style ships judging from their canvas which was evidently made of cotton P35 but as we did not exchange signals I cannot speak with certainty, and they were some distance from us – The Americans have a much larger fleet of vessels in these fisheries than our countrymen – The wind about 8 pm became very unsettled with passing squalls and at 10 we had a strong breeze with frequent heavy squalls, when all the studding sails and Royals were taken in also flying jib, the top gallant sails were also lowered on to the caps – This evening another whaler passed us also an American, whose sails were also in full operation, There was a young whale playing about our ship for some time but he did not show much of himself, though I distinctly saw him spouting several times – After going to bed I find this greatly increased and continuous strong breeze, the top gallant sails and cross jack were also taken in – I managed however to sleep very well through it having again got out my blanket which I had put away in the hot weather having found a sheet quite sufficient covering and sometimes too much even with the door and port light open – the thermometer in the Captains state room is today 58 only, it has been since we left 85 in the same place – I omitted in the commencement of Thursdays remarks to state that a vessel was in sight about topsails up astern of us when the 2 whales were in sight which we had no doubt was the Alipore, she was however soon out of sight Latitude 36.8 S Longitude 10.19.45 W Tuesday Nov 30th Another month is now nearly at an end this being the last day which also makes us seven weeks at sea, and since leaving Ireland’s shores have only once set eyes on land viz Martin Vas Rocks which is duly mentioned in its proper place- The time appears to have passed quickly much more so than I P36 Expected but it must be anything but pleasant to be a solitary passenger especially in bad weather as the Capt. Is then fully employed and there is no one to speak to – This day strong breezes from the SW ship is going ESE 10 to 11 knots. I see by the mates log she from 10 last night to 2 this morning was going 12 to 12 ½ knots. A brig in sight this evening right ahead apparently coming this way, we shall pass each other in the night and thus be unable to communicate. Several birds about today Mr. Willis shot an Albatross and Cape Pigeon. I was not shooting long and killed nothing, was practising with one of the ships muskets with ball came very near once or twice but did not hit my bird – We have had a capital run I find by the mates log 232½ knots up to noon this day an average of 9¾ knots per hour – very good I hope she will keep at it Latitude 36.57 S Longitude 6.7.45 W Wednesday December 1st November has now followed its predecessors and the last month of 1852 is at hand. The weather is still cold but not so severe as any friends in old England are doubtless experiencing – This morning before breakfast Capt. McLay shot a Cape Pigeon with a bullet, a capital shot as they are small birds, less than the English pigeons, we have had a line over the stern very frequently in the hopes of taking and Albatross but have not yet succeeded, it may seen strange fishing for birds especially when I state the hook is baited with a piece of fat pork, but these birds are very voracious and fond of anything that is fat – We have been going too quickly through the water for them to take it. I fancy the passengers throwing so many odds and ends overboard they prefer this to anything moveable. I hope however soon
P37 to record having caught one being anxious to examine them closely. This morning light winds from WNW steering SE at noon it rather increased and at we were again going 10 knots, varying from which to 11½ she continued until 9 pm at which hour and at 10 she was going 13 knots after which I see 12½ 11 and 11½ until 4 am. The wind at noon changed to North and at 9 when she was going 13 to NNE – (from noon yesterday to same time today 230 knots another capital days work – /X vide below Latitude 37.57 Longitude 2.22 W Thursday Dec 2nd On reading over yesterdays remarks I find the last one with reference to the distance run is wrong and should have been in this days, yesterdays distance being 168½ only. Still fine fresh breezes during last night as is intimated by the distance seen to noon of this day 230 knots. At 8 am the wind changed to NW ship then going 8 -8½ and at noon the wind almost died away only going 4 knots it is astonishing from the little wind there is how she went even that, but I have been frequently astonished several times when I thought it impossible the ship could be moving at all, it being as I considered dead calm, to find she was stealing away 2 to 3 knots – Wind continued light and variable the remainder of the day with hazy weather, at 10 pm changed NNW still thick and hazy with light winds though rather freshening – No shooting today – The last few mornings I have occupied partly by looking over the "Mary’s" accounts to have all in readiness should I meet that vessel on my arrival in the Colony. In the afternoon trying to make a drawing of the "Condor" of which vessel I took a hasty sketch when she was in company P38 the other day. My sketching prowess if ever I had any I expect to say have about vanished, but never having attempted anything in this line since leaving school I cannot expect to do much – It however serves to pass a little time, and affords a variety in amusements – MMW and I generally also continue to play one or two games at chess during the day sometime and are pretty nearly matched. Latitude 39.19 S Longitude 2.35.30 E Friday Dec 3rd On rising this morning was glad to find nice moderate breeze from NNW, and that we were going 9½ knots which was gradually freshened, so that we could just carry all our canvass any more wind would have compelled a reduction thereof. We are steering SE by S which course we kept all the day, and had an excellent run the wind at 8 pm changed to NW but answered our purpose quite as well as we laid the same course and fully kept up our average as from one pm to 12 we were never going less than 11 knots from that to 12. I trust we may keep it up until tomorrow at 12 by which time we shall have made a splendid run. – Dr. Barnett received a most insulting letter from Mr. Miles in consequence of his having been requested to deliver up a key of which he had possession which he refused to do, he therein accused him of want of moral and physical courage on one occasion when he smelt as he thought fire and indulges in many personalities, tho Doctor treated it in the best manner with silent contempt. Having another lock put on the door in question which has evidently greatly annoyed Mr. Miles as he was heard on the deck to say he would declare open war. We are this day out 52 days – distance run since yesterday noon owing to so little wind then only 167 miles the bulk of which was accomplished since midnight Latitude 40.38 S Longitude 5.39 E P39 Saturday Dec 4th Out 53 days – Much to my mortification instead of finding a fine breeze as we left last night, on going on deck this morning found the breeze had considerably failed and we were only going 6½ knots though I am glad to find we 10½ and 9½ until 6 – Soon after breakfast or about 9 am the wind changed to W and decreased that at noon we were only going 4 knots – soon after which a long rolling swell set in which of course tends considerably to stop her progress This morning part of the crew have been employed filling up some of the empty water casks with salt water as ballast. The ship having lightened so considerably since we left England, a very natural consequence considering there are about 1000 mouths to fill every day, which in a passage of 53 days so far, have of course consumed a considerable weight of food – at one pm the wind changed to SW but did not increase and for the remainder of the day we had only obtained 3½ to 4 knots per hour Course SE by S Latitude 42.15 S Longitude 10.19 E
Sunday Dec 5th On rising this morning was glad to find the wind had freshened from the West and we were going when I went on deck at 8 8½ knots the same course as last night. This day fine and rather warmer than yesterday Sol favouring us with a little more of his presence than we have had the last few days. We were unable to have divine service which was performed as usual by the Schoolmaster – A larger proportion of the passengers being Irish the Roman Catholic service is the most numerous attended . I think the Methodists assemble in the fore part of the ship as I have never seen them mustered yet. Being now in low latitudes the temperature of the water was tried and at I pm was 49 ??? Latitude 40.14 S Longitude 13.6.30 E P40 Monday Dec 6th Out 55 days I concluded my yesterdays remarks with the temperature of the water which I may as well continue and will preface this with this days temperature. At midnight it was 48 at 4pm 47½ 8 48 noon 50 at 8 pm 52 12 47. There is therefore no chance of our meeting with any Ice yet and I hope we shall not do so – though certainly I should like to see and Iceberg at a respectable distance from us. – Light breeze from North North West this morning ship going seven and half knots at one PM changed to NW and having increased we mended our pace to 10 to 11 knots which we fully kept up the remainder of the day. – Whilst at dinner the second mate came to inform us there was likely to be a general row on deck, we immediately went up and found the Schoolmaster had been reading a long rambling insulting letter (addressed to Dr. Barnett) to the passengers whom he had collected in large numbers round him, and was addressing them thereon. I really think the most charitable construction to be put on him, is to consider him and Idiot – instead of rendering assistance to keep the passengers quiet he is the most dissatisfied man in the ship and not content with this must try to rouse the others, and would I believe it were in his power raise a mutiny in the ship- The abovementioned epistle was soon forwarded to the Dr. accompanied by a letter written by Mr. Miles and addressed to himself enumerating his good qualities and general usefulness in the ship which he had persuaded some of the passengers to sign- Dr. Barnett unfortunately allowed this man too much authority at first, which has led him to believe it is his right, he tells the passengers he is the second officer in the ship, he appears not to be attending much to his schoolmasters duties. Capt. McLay informs me that about 10 pm we were in the Longitude of the Cape of Good Hope. Latitude 44.19 S Longitude 16.29 E P41 Tuesday Dec 7th WE are 8 weeks out today and only just passed the Cape which at one time I hoped we should do so in considerably less time, though only just passé we are some distance to the south if we had intended calling there could have been there 2 or 3 days ago. I am glad find that we fully maintained our speed of yesterday through the night, and that since 9 pm yesterday when she was going 10½ there is nothing lower than 11 knots. At 4.45 she was going 11½ 6 to 8 12 knots and at 9. 10. 11. and 12. nothing less than 13 knots each hour. At one am the wind again changed to NW from which it continued to blow pretty steadily as well as strong as may be judged from the speed we have been going since then. At noon I have got down 13 knots, this should be 13 ½ the Capt. himself have the log, and he took it all off the reel without the slightest assistance and the sudden check broke the line – Distance run from noon yesterday to same time today 266 miles, not a bad 24 hours work. Wind at 1 pm changed to North, we are still progressing, varying from 12 to 10 knots and when I went to bed about 11 we were reduced to 7. there is also every appearance of very little wind during the night – the Southern Cross was visible, but being in the middle of a game of chess I could not then go up and see it and when I did so was too late – very little variation in the temperature of the water today. The lowest being at 9 pm 44° – An investigation going on in the Cabin with reference to Mr. Miles letter of yesterday or more particularly to that accompanying his, I not feeling interested therein, adjourned to the deck, and whilst Mr. Miles, the Capt. and Doctors were busy below, I amused myself above with shooting and had the luck to kill 2 Cape Pigeons and a Mother Carey’s Chicken. When a slight drizzling rain commencing I took the gun below. MW having been busy writing all the morning and with this afternoon has not had an opportunity of getting a shot. Mr. Miles letter proved like most of his cases "much ado about nothing" – Sun obscure Latitude by a/c 46.11 S Longitude 22.6 E Distance run 264 Miles
P42 Wednesday Dec 8th 57th day As I expected last night we had very little wind all night and are this morning only going about 6 ½ knots, at 8 the water is colder than we have yet had it being 42°, it however afterwards got up to 44° at noon. Wind this morning West and at 9 am NW by W. though very little of it. We have however had a long rolling swell all day setting after us which has helped us along our way. Several shots have been fired today and I think each individual has killed some birds except myself. I had 3 shots struck an Albatross hard but not sufficiently to kill him, as I was using small shot, and the amount of shot they will carry away is almost incredible, as I have seen a handful of feathers fly out of them and the only apparent notice they took of it was to shake their legs and tail. – Wind light and variable for the remainder of the day. Sun being obscure unable to get an observation Latitude by a/c 46.11 S Longitude 26.45 E Thursday Dec 9th 59 days No change to report in the wind since last night still very light and variable – Morning fine temperature water at 8 am 46° whilst the thermometer at this time whilst hanging in the companion shewed 52° this however before long fell to 48 whilst the water maintained the same temperature. About 10 we were astonished by a large shoal of bottle nosed whales fully 100 playing all round the ship, we did not see them until they were close upon us – this soon roused all to action, the Capt. was quickly armed with one of the ships muskets laden with ball with which he struck several of them, it was truly amusing to see them occasionally protruding their huge bottle noses some distance into the air as if they were standing on their tails, like a huge porter bottle floating with the cork downwards, when in this position the Capt. took a shot at them and struck them when they immediately disappeared, — not being able to look quickly on P43 with so much game in view I armed myself similarly and go two shots but by this time they were getting past us. The first shot at one was floating past us I struck the water a little to the side of him there was but little of him visible above the water at the time and I had not allowed sufficiently for the depression of the ball, the second which was at a considerable distance I committed the same error, the ball striking the water then bouncing right over its intended object immediately after this as it was calm the Capt. got one of the boats out and with 4 hands went in search of one which he hit very hard in the head and which appeared to be dead as it floated away upon its back – they were however unsuccessful . I think he must have sunk, they could not get within harpoon reach of the others. The Capt. took a shot at one with that weapon but was too far off to strike – it was very unfortunate they could not find the one so hard struck as I think it would have been very easy prey and the Capt. in his opinion would have yielded 40 to 50 gallons of oil. Matthew and I intended accompanying them but the crew not knowing this, pushed off as soon as they were in, we therefore contented ourselves by watching the proceedings from the Mizzen top – Soon after descending from our recent elevation, we had some shooting amongst the birds, and I made as I considered an excellent shot at a Cape hen which was just rising from the water, the ball was certainly not half an inch from it, nut however as the old adage says "a miss is as good as a mile" it escaped. Mathew who had been firing with his gun, thought he would try a musket and an Albatross passing at the time at some distance, he first sent a ball right through him, as he fell as dead as a stone. At one pm the wind became variable at E weather cloudy, with every appearance of a gale, took in all studding sails and booms, at 4 wind increasing took in royals and flying jib and at 7 top gallant sails – at 8 it them blowing a fresh gale as the Mate calls it, double reefed the topsails, wind then variable from SE ship steering ENE. Heavy sea, ship rolling and pitching heavily Latitude 45.46 S Longitude 29.10.30 E P44 Friday Dec 10th Out 59 days Was certainly tossed about to my hearts content last night, the gale having lasted all night and being accompanied with a nasty cross sea tumbled us about sadly and awoke us several times during the night, once I awoke hearing a rush of water which I found to be the water jug capsized and my shoes, as well as some of my clothing were pretty well soaked in the morning though I gathered the latter up as soon as possible.- On ascending on deck this morning I found the ship under close reefed topsails, reefed courses, for topmast staysail and main hysail? Only – the reefed mainsail had just been set it having been furled since midnight at 3 am wind was South our course being E by S blowing a strong gale, at 8 when the reefed mainsail was set it was rather more moderate, wind then SW by W, which
continued until soon after noon when it changed to W SW still strong gale with heavy sea, ship going 10 knots. At 6 the gale moderating the 3rd reef was taken out of the topsails, and at 8 wind West the reefs were taken out of the courses and the cross jack set . Ship at this time going 11½ knots. Since noon the ship has been going varying from 10 to 11½ knots . The temperature of the water appears slightly on the increase as it is up at 52° at 8 pm having gradually risen since midnight when it was 44 Latitude 43.52 S Longitude 30.32 E Saturday Dec 11th Out 60 days What a difference our ship presents this morning to that of yesterday, the wind having moderated she is again under a cloud of canvas including royals, main sky sails, starboard studding sails etc. instead of the small amount of that necessary for a ships propulsion canvas, which we were able to shew to the gale of yesterday. Very few of the passengers either visited the decks indeed scarcely any until the evening and even then they were tumbling about on the deck – several of them seated on the spare spars which were lashed against the bulwarks and obliged to get a rope round them to keep them up, but I am digressing to yesterday’s remarks – At one another wind N North West and at 6 a moderate breeze ship going 9 knots – A great number of birds about the ship this morning and we have all done considerable execution amongst them, I killed two Cape hens with a musket and other two with gun. – I omitted yesterday to remark that during the gale two or three whales were seen one of which judging from the height he spouted the water must have been a very large P45 one. – We have seen several of these now and I think most descriptions of the monsters of the deep with the exception of the shark, which I am very anxious to see and trust ere long any wish may be gratified – 1 pm wind NNW at which it remained for the remainder of the day. Course SE by Having very light until 8 at which time we were again going 9 knots. Wind increasing when I returned to my pillow – I trust it will continue so to do and think from all appearances that it will- Water 50 to 52 Latitude 43.39 S Longitude 35.9.45 E Sunday Dec 12th Out 61 days As I anticipated last night we have had a nice breeze and we have been going 11 to 12 knots it is now however more moderate when I went on deck just before breakfast, but soon increased again to a nice steady breeze. – Service performed as usual by Mr. Miles which he did very indifferently this morning making several mistakes – In the afternoon Mr. Miles as usual addressed his countrymen in their own form. In the ‘tween decks and I am told was occupied therein about 2½ hours, I have not heard what his text was, but most probably one which he might be able to twist in some way to apply to anything passing on board. Last Sunday which I find I have not noted, his text was the 9th Commandment. This he handled very personally, evidently alluding to some men who had been called on to give some evidence which touching Mr. Miles he thought proper to assert was false though proved, and took this opportunity of talking at them.- During the latter part of the day the wind very light indeed has been from the S West since noon, at 10 pm changed to North West. Had an excellent view of the Southern Cross Latitude 43.37 S Longitude 40.3.30 E Monday Dec 13th Out 62 days I regret to find this morning that we have made very little progress during the night having been becalmed for 4 hours and doing very little the rest of the time – at 8 the hour at which we usually appear we have again got up to 7½ only going 5½ at 7. The wind however still continued light until 4 pm when we were going 10½ and at 5 pm 11 knots which rate we kept up until 11, when just before going to bed about this last named hour I went on deck and found the ship was going 12 ½Knots. Wind North East, and our course at this time altered from SE by S to SE by E½E having taken my accustomed walk I retired for the night anxiously hoping to record the same speed the morning Latitude 43.36 S Longitude 43.43 E P46 Tuesday Dec 14th Out 63 days With great pleasure I record the full realization of any hopes of yesterday as on meeting Capt. McLay on deck soon after eight he informed one that for the last 4 hours she had been going 13 knots. A very fair speed tho I think since turning in last night she had been going 12 to 12 ½ all the time – the latter rate she kept up until noon had it not been for the first few hours after noon yesterday we should have made a splendid days work. (Of course my friends are aware that a nautical day commences at noon one day and ends noon of the next, and thus I speak of our days work, which on the whole
notwithstanding the slack commencement, we have seen 275 miles by observation, the log book gives 2 or 3 miles more. – This breeze lasted all the day tho the direction from whence it came was twice or thrice altered, at one pm it was from NNE at 4 from North west by West and at 9 from the West – it continued to blow pretty fresh all the time and the ship to make good progress as only once during the rest of the day is she marked so low as 10 the rest being 11½ to 12½. – A great deal of rain fell during the day and the passengers only shewed themselves on deck for a short time – Sun obscured not able to get an observation Latitude 43.56 S Longitude 49.59 E Wednesday Dec 15th Out 64 days Wind this morning WSW and I am glad to find it has been a nice breeze all night and the ship has been going from 10½ to 12 knots. This is however moderated after noon to our grief but we managed to keep up not less than 7½ knots. – I believe I said some time ago when alluding to the Magellan Clouds that I would endeavour to describe them hereafter, they are now very visible but there is very little to describe and thought we should be able to see the individual stars more distinctly but find it is not the case – the clouds are like white clouds in the midst of a blue sky or somewhat like a slice cut out of the Milky way – and I believe consist of a multitude of stars of small magnitude – Temperature of water much the same Latitude 43.40 S Longitude 55.45.30 E P47 Thursday Dec 16th Out 65 Days This morning the weather much warmer and the wind light from NNW – at noon the temperature of the water was 51 considerably warmer than it was that I think we shall not now see any ice. The thermometer also shower 63 in the companion, which shows a considerable rise on the last few days which I have not remarked as they showed so little change. At 4pm the water was around 58 a great jump in the last few hours. At 1 pm we had a nice breeze from the North North East which lasted from that quarter until 9 when it changed to North, still strong breezes during which time we have been going 11 and 12 knots and at which latter speed I left her going when turning in for the night at nearly 12 o’clock. Under double reefed topsails and courses – and I think from all appearances I shall find her much the same in the morning – if until noon we shall make the best days work yet. Latitude 43.39 S Longitude 59.35 E Friday Dec 17th Out 66 days I am glad to find that we have been doing well since I left the deck last night having been going 12 knots all the time – but unfortunately at 9 the wind fell light and considerably reduced our speed, we have however according to the log book run 266 knots, a very good days work, which I trust we may continue for some time – The sky was cloudy at noon and sun obscured Wind this morning has been variable from WNW to W and at 1 pm round to WSW and decreased – Nothing particular today Distance 263 Latitude 43.26 S Longitude 65.35 E Saturday Dec 18th Out 67 Days This morning to my dismay found the wind from the East and that we were heading NR by N, at 9 however tacked the ship off to SE and the wind varying were soon enabled to lay our course again about noon in the Longitude of the Kerguellins Isle 5½ degrees to the North of it – For several days past as will be seen by the slight variation of our latitude we have made a very straight course having kept rather further North than Capt. McLay originally intended owing to the cold P48 Temperature of the water Keguellin island now being passed and no other land that we are aware of laying to the south of us there is consequently less of danger of ice and tho Capt. intends making a little more southing – Dr. Barnett has been examining his weapons for his intended attack upon the Australian Gold, getting his hatchet ground, fitting his belts etc. the sailmaker has been busy the last week making him a tent for his residence there he is very sanguine as to the result of his operations a friend of his having been successful.- About 1 the wind NE moderate breeze which lasted until evening but increasing and with a very threatening appearance, the barometer also having fallen considerably Distance 147 Latitude 43.22 S Longitude 68.54.45 E Sunday Dec 19th Out 68 days
Was astonished this morning by Capt. McLay knocking at our door and enquiring after us at the same time announcing that it was 9 o’clock, upon which Matthew and I sprung from our berths wondering what had kept us there so long. – and were shortly at the breakfast table, where we were not the last. – After we were in bed the weather was very boisterous with thunder and lightening and very heavy rain, ship under double reefed topsails, and courses there was however no signs of this when we went up after breakfast as the weather was quite moderate and ship again under all plain sail – We that is the Protestants had no service today as the Catholics did not commence their until 11 (the time at which we normally commence) owing to the deck being occupied by the sailors setting the studding sails – and the passengers dinner being nearly ready there was no time, at 2 which is also our dinner hour the Scotch service commences – and after this at 3.30 Dr. Barnett mustered the passengers ass usual on Sunday, top see that they are all clean and tidy – the day has been fine throughout, winds light. A great number of birds have been hovering about the ship today, as if knowing they were safe from our guns- Dist. 250 Latitude 44.3 S Longitude 74.29.15 E P49 Monday Dec 20th Out 69 days I omitted yesterday to mention that a very large whale passed under our stern yesterday which I saw very distinctly a large portion of his back being out of the water. – Fine breeze from NNW this morning ship going along gloriously fully 12 knots. – Temperature of the water warmer 52° . Nothing particular today Distance 229 miles Latitude 44.16 South Longitude 79.45.45 E Tuesday Dec 21st Out 70 days It seems to me very strange having never been previously in the Southern Hemisphere to note this day, when in England we are all gathering closely round the fire and looking forward to Xmas with its accompanying frosts and snow and, as Midsummers’ Day which is the case – this I must say we have not had nearly so much hot weather as I anticipated, but being now so far south of course it cannot be expected – The thermometer has averaged during this day 50 temperature of the water 48 to 49. We have daylight until about half past eight, which is a very pleasant thing at sea – Have had fine breeze all night from the same quarter as yesterday. NNW and been going 11 to 12 knots which we kept up all the day. For the last 11 days we have averaged 5 degrees a day capital sailing which I hope we may keep up for some time in which case we shall make a good passage yet. I think not withstanding our detention in the variables – We are I believe carrying out the largest number of Emigrants which have gone to this Colony in one ship, it would be very satisfactory to land them all in good health in the shortest space of time, but this I fear we cannot now do. The passengers Adults I mean are all in good health, we have lost several children but this was quite expected, being always the case, besides many of the infants were unwell when embarked. Distance 255 M Latitude 44.42 S Longitude 85.40 E Wednesday Dec 22nd Out 71 days I am glad to be able to report that we are still going along in splendid style, fine breeze still from the same quarter NNW 11 to 12knotsand have made up to noon another excellent days work, there is I think every appearance of making up amply for our short days works in a more Northern clime though I mentioned short days works we have on the whole had a very fortunate passage. Sun obscure no observation Distance 262 miles Latitude a/c 45.20 S Longitude a/c 91.47 E P50 Thursday Dec. 23rd Out 72 days During last night we have had heavy and constant rain which continued until 4 pm commencing at 9 pm yesterday – at about 9 this morning the wind abated considerably and reduced us to 4 and 5 knots a speed which I do not find on reference to the Mates log book for the last five days there being no less than double this amount. I am glad to state however that we did not continue at this long as the wind increasing about 3 we were soon going 8 knots from that to 9 and 10 and now whilst I write at 10 pm the log having just been hove we are going 12 again – there is also a heavy swell rolling after us which will aid us somewhat. This evening a deputation has been aft requesting they may have some extra allowance on Saturday next being Christmas day. Which M Miles has granted that not being pudding day the Sat. and Sundays rations have been changed and they are to have a double allowance of plums to make a plum pudding and to have brandy sauce made so that they will I think fare very well. – Sun
has been again obscure so that no observation could be made, the evening however being fine and clear the Capt. was enabled to take a Lunar Obs. And thus cheque his a/c – he certainly gives himself a great deal of what some would think unnecessary trouble taking observations of different kinds, but apparently likes it and says it is good practice, which it certainly is, especially the double Altitudes in which there is an infinity of work and which he very frequently takes – Of course his different Observations agreeing must naturally make him more confident of his exact whereabouts and continue his course with perfect satisfaction – I am now going to take my usual walk and cigar with MMW and shall then write for the evening, hoping to find the same fine breeze tomorrow. Distance 245 Latitude 45.56 S Longitude 97.24 E a/c P47 Friday Dec 24th Out 73 days On awaking this morning any thoughts immediately wandered back to old England and that portion of it called Whitby I do not mention this as if it were it were a rare occurrence, but remembering that this is the anniversary of Edward’s birthday, of course called my attention more particularly to all, this when they arise will I am sure be reciprocated but as we see now about 7 hours in advance of their time all will be fast asleep at the time I am speaking of – more especially when assembled in the evening as we all were last year keeping up the old English custom of Christmas Eve. I was glad to find on gaining the deck that we are still ploughing most satisfactorily under all sail including port studding sails, with a nice fresh breeze from WNW about 10 knots, this however increasing about noon all studding sails and main royal were taken in and at 6 the topgallant sails underwent the same operation tho ship going all the day 10 to 11 knots. We have had a heavy sea rolling after us all day and the ship been rolling heavily – I regret exceedingly to add that about 9.15 pm whilst Matthew W the Capt. and myself were seated in the Cabin we were alarmed by the cry of a man overboard rushing on deck found such to be too true as unfortunately for myself we heard the cry of the poor fellow astern which rang in my ears for long after, the wind being dead aft we heard it distinctly – A life buoy was thrown over, the topsail and topgallant halyards let go and the helm put hard up and the life boat ordered out, but only one man volunteered to go in her, such being the state of the weather – besides which had a crew volunteered, the Capt. says it would have been madness to have allowed them to proceed as the chances were 10 to 1 against the boat ever leaving the side of the ship, the sea then being so very heavy that they would probably have all been drowned and as the ship was going at the time 12 knots through the water before the boat could be lowered he would be at least a mile astern which distance they could not have pulled against such a sea and wind in less than an hour and half even supposing her to have got safely away from the ship, long before which the poor fellow must have suffered and P48 the night being quite dark it would have almost impossible to have seen him if alive and in the immediate neighbourhood – It grieved us all to think how vain is the effort of man knowing this poor fellow was drowning were perfectly unable to send the slightest assistance – All attempts and hopes of saving him being ended the crew were mustered to ascertain who it was, when it was found to be an able seaman named John Healy who I have mentioned on the 22nd Nov. as Boy Jack. – of course we in the Cabin felt this loss more as he having been now nearly five weeks attending on us we have seen much more of him than of the rest of the crew, and he was a great favourite with all being so attentive and willing to render every assistance – he was also a very sharp lad and active sailor – this of course threw quite a gloom ??? over the ship It was with sorrowful hearts we again proceeded on our course. And Healy it is thought fell out of the Mains Rigging as he had just told some of the men that he was going to get some clothes which he had drying there and as the ship gave some very heavy lurches at the time, it is most probable whilst untying the clothes he was thrown over Distance 228 Miles Latitude 45.35 S Longitude 102.42 E Saturday December 25th Out 74 days We have had fresh gales all the night accompanied with squalls and have been tearing along 11 to 12 knots wind at West about 9 it changed to WNW Passengers were read to by Mr. Miles it being Xmas day and the Catholics also had a service . _ It was impossible to wish each other a merry Christmas owing to the melancholy accident of last night such a thing being quite out of the question, it were therefore useless to utter the words.- It is pretty cold here the thermometer being today at 40 we were also visited by hail storms – fresh gales all day with heavy rolling sea . – Sat up until 12 at which time my thoughts again wandered homewards as we now being about 7½ hours east of Greenwich, pictured all at home preparing.
P53 For dinner and doubtless wondering where the writer hereof was spending his Christmas, as for some years past we have all been together at this time – however though not therein person his thoughts were and also accompanied with his best wished for each and all. The Capt. informs us that about this time midnight, we are in the Longitude of Cape Inscription, near Sharks Bay the most Western point of Australia – We have had an excellent run from the longitude of the Cape which we passed on the 6th Inst. At 10 pm and as we are now 5 hours in advance of the time then we of course 3 hours within the 19 days having traversed a distance of 4055 Miles. An average speed of very nearly 9 knots which I trust we may keep up until the end of the voyage – Matthew Willis being unable to read this morning wiled away an hour or two by composing some lines on the melancholy events of yesterday Distance 259 miles Latitude 45.33 S Longitude 108.44.45 E Sunday December 26th Out 75 days I am glad to find we are still getting on as well as could be wished, we have had heavy gales all night, the ship still rolling very heavily as she has done for some days, though we still manage to make 11 to 12 knots per hour We have had no service today owing to the rough weather. At noon the wind changed to West but about 9 o’clock got back to the old quarter WNW still continued very squally – Partial Eclipse Moon 8.30 Distance 295 miles!!!! Latitude 46.3 S Longitude 115.45 E Monday Dec 27th Out 76 days Another capital nights work, we have now got so much accustomed to the rolling and rocking to sleep that I think we shall miss it when it abates. Whether we shall regret the loss or not yet remains to be seen. The wind again from the West this morning and we are rushing madly in under snug canvas nothing able to be shown much on account of the frequency and violence of the squalls. In the afternoon the ship was struck by a heavy sea which broke on board. There were several of the passengers walking on the deck at the time and we could not help laughing at seeing them rolling about from side to side or rather washing about as there was a great P54 Quantity of water and many of them were wet through as they could not get up between the rolls. Another good days work to add to the list if we make a few more such I shall not have many days to record. I trust such may be the case. Distance 240 miles Latitude 45.34 S Longitude 121.17 E Tuesday Dec 28th Out 77 days Wind and weather much the same as yesterday wind still West. We are steering E½S ship still rolling considerably owing to the nasty cross swell we have, but the squalls are less violent and frequent and I hope they will soon settle down and thus allow us to spread more canvas to the breeze. The barometer however keeps very low being today at 29°. Done well again today. I trust we are yet going to make a quick passage, the prospect of so doing having considerably increased the last few days.- The winds having favoured us so well in these latitudes the Capt. has decided to keep in them and thus go round Van Dieman’s Land instead of through the Bass Straits, so that there is every probability of my proceeding from Sydney to Melbourne I shall have an opportunity of seeing the Straits also. – Still going as usual lately Distance 254 Miles Latitude 45.9 S Longitude 127.15 E Wednesday Dec 29th Out 78 days On gaining the deck this morning found that the squalls having at 6 am moderated we had again got the topgallant sails and port studding sails also royals and flying jib set which considering we have been so long under reefed topsails is an agreeable change, and I trust we shall be able to get along quite as well as we have been lately if so we cannot complain and hope to do better would be ungrateful. – The swell though considerably abated still accompanies us but we are rather steadier than before. At 2 pm our course was altered to E being now far enough to the Southward. The Barometer is still low, that we have not yet I expect done with the strong breeze Weather much warmer being at noon today 54° and the water 50° Course now due E. Wind still W Distance 282 miles Latitude 45.20 Longitude 132.40 E P55
Thursday Dec 30th out 79 days This morning the weather is much more moderate and we have being doing well all night 11 to 12 knots 8am wind NNW and at 11 we altered our course to E by N with an intention of making Rurich ?? Rock which we hope to do on Saturday morning if we do not pass it during Friday night that is if the wind still favours us. – At 1 m the wind changed to N which rather alarmed us lest it should come further round and head us, our hopes being now raise so high of making a quick passage such an event would indeed be a disappointment when so near our journey’s end – at 2 carried away the foretopmast studding sail boom, and the wind increasing, reduced canvas. During the evening were visited with lightening, with plenty of rain – At 10 pm the wind fortunately for us went back to its old quarter NNW thus disarming our fears of its getting further round the other way – the glass is still very low – Distance 262 miles Latitude 45.34 S Longitude 138.48 E Friday Dec 31st Out 80 days This morning we were pleased to find the wind NNW, though the glass is fearfully low having fallen 3/10th between 4 and 8 am at which time it was 29° – In consequence of which the Capt. expected a heavy gale and kept the ship under easy sail, a little before one his expectations were fully realizes as we were then visited with a perfect hurricane from West with a very heavy sea. Sail was immediately reduced as quickly as possible – furled the mainsail and close reefed the maintopsail, whilst hauling out the reef tackles of the fore topsails to reef it the sail split in 2 or 3 places it was therefore stowed, the foresail was also reefed and stowed. And the ship reduced to close reefed, Main topsail the fore topmast stay sail followed the fate of foretopsail. (Wind and sea being still quite as high as before) This being rendered useless and stowed we were running under fore topmast stay sails only at the rate of 10 knots per hour, the staysail was then hauled down to seize? Some hands and we for a considerable time were scudding under our poles 9½ knots. At 4pm the gale slightly abating the 2 topsails were sent down and others bent, but were not able to be set until midnight – The sea during this storm was fearfully high and to look at it rolling after us rising like a huge mountain immediately abaft of us it appeared as if certain to pass us as if nothing could save us from being engulfed therein. It was awful to look on and at the same time so grand that we that is Matthew and I could not help staying on deck to watch it P56 The clouds at the same time being fearfully black. A few of the female passengers were on the deck . being new years Eve, we all sat up to greet the New Year and pass the usual compliments not forgetting our friends at home, but whilst midnight with us it would only be half past 2 pm with them the chances would be very great against our thinking of each other at the same time – Immediately after the New year had been ushered in, we took a walk on the poop for a short time and found the gale having somewhat abated the fore and main topsails were set close reefed – after which we retired – Having mentioned in the 25th Inst. Xmas day the manner in which MW occupied a short time, he has consented to allow me to copy the lines spoken of, though he insists on their not being worth it, being done so hurriedly. Before copying them I must not omit to state that at midnight we were in the Longitude of South Cape Van Dieman’s Land our course then being ENE and at 3 am Jan 1st 1853 our course was altered to NE by E ‘Twas Christmas Ev, a murky night Replaced the light of day The ship before a favouring gale Urged madly on her way We were on board a thousand souls The hopes of all were high Thus proudly sailing on our course None though of danger nigh The morning would bring Christmas Day Well might the fancy roam On Eve of such a festival To the sweet scenes of home But Ah! The thoughts we thus indulged Too quickly were recalled
By a sad scene before our eyes Which every soul appalled A shriek was heard, and suddenly The Mate with loud voice soared This fearful intimation – "Ho! A man is overboard" "Down with the helm." The Captain cried "Let topsail halyards go" "Lower the boat" – ere this he’d said We heard the source of woe. From far astern a shout was borne Distinct amid the gale And still again repeated was The drowning mans loud hail! The sea was high – the crested waves With restless fury dashed And each one as it reached he ship Against her loudly lashed We soon perceived ‘twould madness be To launch our quarter boat No men on such a night s that Could keep themselves afloat Besides had it been lowered – the crew Tho’ little used to fear Would not have gone – We had ??? But one have volunteer P57 And he on whom our thoughts were set Was now a mile away His struggles probably were o’er He’d seen his latest day A life buoy towards him was thrown When his first shriek was made But from the darkness of the night He scarce could seek its aid XXXXXXXXXXXX The tall ship held her course once more The boisterous wind still howled The heavy sea kept rolling on The tale of life was told! XXXXXXXXXXXX Poor Jack! The deep is now thy bed The billows o’er thee surge And the loud gale in mournful tone Has sung thy funeral dirge The only hope that now is left Is that God’s boundless love Would on thy soul, kind pity take And lift to realms above
P58 January 1st 1853 Out 81 days After we retired last night a considerable quantity of rain fell which knocked down the sea and at 5 this morning the wind having moderated let out 2 reefs of topsail the wind also changes WSW at 4pm the wind still moderating set all sail it being then very light from west. We are now steering North, and hope a few days more will bring us to our desired haven – On our visiting the deck this morning we were greeted with plenty of good wishes, more especially from the Scotch with whom it is a great day, they taking little or no notice of Christmas day. I suppose it is the custom in Scotland as soon as the New Year comes in to go into the street armed with a bottle of whisky and glass and giving to all they meet and passing the usual compliments – this was done to some extent here as this morning and I believe last night they were visiting each other . the married people with a bottle of a composition of molasses raspberry vinegar and water – Some of the Scotch girls this morning came to Capt. McLay and the Doctor with a similar mixture, which they said really was not bad – on coming below and informing MW who was with me waking in the cabin. He decided to send them a bottle of wine which Cap. McLay took them and of course greatly please same – At 6 pm the wind became very light and variable and at disappeared, and still continued calm when I went to bed at 12 Distance 224 miles latitude 44.14 S longitude 149.16 E Sunday January 2nd Out 82 days This morning was awoke about 6 by C apt. Mclay coming into our cabin and holding out an Albatross which Mr. Wells the Chief Mate had just caught with a fishing line baited with pork. He said there were a great number about and close to the ship s the morning being fine I turned out and they were indeed plentiful and flying so close to the ship might almost have been knocked down with a stick. – Mr. Johnson also arose and administered a dose of prussic acid to it as he intends to stuff it and take it home with him. It measured 6½ feet across the wings but was very small compared with some we have seen and even with others about today judging from this, some must have measured 11 to 12 feet at least, The wind when I got up was very light indeed in fact it had been calm all night up to this time when a slight air sprung up from NW – Service as usual this morning At noon more wind 9 knots Course NNE the wind kept increasing, at 7 hard gale, double reefed the topsails at 8, close reefed them at 10 and furled them courses, heavy sea again Distance 239 144 Miles Latitude 42.3 S Longitude 150.42 E P 59 Monday Jan 3rd Out 83 days Hard gale all night and in the morning found the ship under close reefed fore and mainsail, mainstay sail and spanker, with a very heavy sea, and ship rolling tremendously – the wind keeping NW all day, we made good our course tho’ the hail??? Is delaying us as we cannot put canvass on the ship – As far as my short experience goes there is no doubt whatever of Strong Westerly Winds prevailing in these Southern Latitudes, as since we rounded the Cape we have had nothing else except frequent heavy squalls, and an occasional hurricane by way of a change, They appear also determined to accompany us to our destination, as since we have rounded Van Diemans land and commenced to make our Northing we have had similar weather Distance 1324 Latitude 40.35 S Longitude 152.30 (The following is written in a smaller hand, though not as upright as the previous hand) Tuesday January 4th Out 84 days The Gale lasted all night, and the heavy beam swell caused the ship to roll so heavily that it was almost impossible to sleep, So that after one of the most uncomfortable nights I ever spent, I was glad to be in some measure consoled by hearing that the ship had made a good course throughout and was still going so. – The Wind decreased considerably after noon and consequently we soon had a wide spread of canvass again, – At 7 it became so light that we were only going 5 knots and we have reason to fear not improve during the night, which is the more annoying as at 4 pm on examining our position on the chart we find Sydney to be distant only 145 miles, and therefore had reason to hope tomorrow would land our passengers, – a tolerable breeze would still effect this and after the splendid run we have had since passing the Cape we do not feel disposed to think same Fortune will allow the smile to leave her face whilst we are in a position to suffer from her frown. Distance 219 miles Latitude 36.46 South Longitude 152.47
Wednesday January 5th Out 85 days Yesterday we hoped almost against hope, but if the old saying "fortune favours the brave" is a true one the very fact of our placing such reliance on her must have induced her to realize our wished, for though it was nearly calm both all last night and this morning, at noon we got a nice E.S.E. breeze which enabled us run in and sight land, At 2pm saw Long nose point and Javois Head (105 miles S of Sydney) after which we steered NNE along the land the ship averaging 10 knots and at 9pm Sydney lights were visible from the main topmast head – half an hour later I (MW) saw it myself from the Mizzen topmast head – We shall have to stand off and on all night but hope to get a Pilot soon after daylight and thus conclude a Splendid passage of 85 days – Distance 115 Miles Latitude 3511 S Longitude 151.26 E (W Underwood’s hand resumes) Thursday Jan 6th Having a slight headache last night as I turned in to my birth rather earlier than usual, and not having written my log, as will be seen, MW kindly wrote it for me – My visit aloft did not tend to relieve my head but being very anxious to see the light before I turned in retired gratified my wish at the expense of my head. Having awoke at 4 this morning I got up, my head being better, and as it was then getting daylight found we were standing in for the harbour, but it P60 Soon after became almost calm and so foggy that no Pilot came near us until 4 pm and even then he would not venture on board on account of the number of deaths we have had and the present sickness – we were therefore ordered to the Quarantine Ground where we brought up at 6 pm – The Pilot keeping a little distance from the ship all the time – In reply to our informing him we had been 85 days he said they were not accustomed to that at all, the quickest being 98 – this is highly satisfactory to our own feelings after the long calms we had near the line – But this was not all as he says the "Cleopatra" which sailed from Plymouth on the 4th Sept. and arrived yesterday, this vessel is a screw steamer and we thus have beaten her considerably – The "Melbourne" also a screw and one of the Australian RMSH Co which left Southampton the day before we left Liverpool is not in yet either, we thus bring the latest news from England, the last being brought to Melbourne by the "Constance" a ship built by the same people as this ship – the reporter from the Sydney Morning Herald also came alongside but was not allowed to communicate with us except at a distance by word of mouth – We gave him some particulars of our voyage and which he wished for – After we were brought up, we were visited by the Quarantine Master then ??? a health officer, who took our despatches from us with a pair of tongs and deposited in a tin case – not so however with the newspapers which we gave him they were received with open hands opened, and the dates examined immediately – he in return gave us a "Sydney Empire" which was very acceptable. Not having alluded to the deaths from time to time as they occurred I will now mention that since leaving England up to this time we have had 56, all infants and young children, with one exception, viz. a country lad named Rowarth who died from apoplexy – he was about 15 a very sleepy looking customer, and blessed with an enormous appetite to which I think in some measure may be attributed his death – as far as we can humanly speak. – There have also been 10 births on board, some of which children died, and are include in the above number. – I sincerely trust we may not be delayed here long – but we cannot yet leave, as all the people have to be landed. The health Officer will be down again in the morning when we as hall learn further particulars – This place is a little within the heads on the North side of the harbour and where we are moored are very nearly land locked there only being the entrance through which we came – it is named Spring Cove – One child which died this morning was brought in and buried on shore together one died this evening (Margin annotation) Passage mean Time 84 days 22 hours P61 Friday January 7th Here we are still and likely to be some time – the Health Officer and Superintendent of Quarantine have been alongside this morning and inform us, all the passengers must be landed and the ship cleansed and purified – when he will again visit us – The Doctor went ashore with then or I should say followed them, as they would not communicate with the ship, he was shewn by the Superintendent the respective abodes for the Invalids and Healthy and received the keys thereof having to give a receipt for all the articles therein – After dinner he again went on shore and received the tents to accommodate the extra number which could not get into the houses, and taking several hands with him erected 7 tents for the reception of the sick which were to be landed immediately it was however too dark before the
preparations were made for them on shore, to land them that night – this is certainly a very pretty looking place, the scenery being so different to what we in England are accustomed, we are surrounded by hills covered in short stunted trees, looking more like brushwood but nevertheless very pretty; with several villas here and there, more especially on the opposite side of the harbour. On one side of the Bay, is an open space of ground on the side of a hill with 4 black painted wooden houses which are for the reception of the healthy those for the sick we cannot see from the ship except the Cook house and Surgeons residence – a part of the Quarantine Masters House is also visible through the trees – There are also many white pillars to be seen which enclose the separate grounds, also several sentry boxes commanding all the walks . When the emigrants are landed these will be occupied by hoops sent down from Sydney, whose instructions are to shoot anyone going beyond his boundary line, more especially the sick coming into the healthy peoples ground. The quarantine laws are very strict here, which from the immense tide of Immigration now flowing to these Colonies renders necessary. Our time hung very heavy on our hands this day as neither Matthew or I landed, and we neither of us could read, except by the bye the Sydney Herald" of the day, which was brought us and eagerly devoured, a newspaper being such a novelty. We amused ourselves part of the time by fishing and caught a mess for tea, one of which bore some resemblance to a salmon trout, though not of so bright colours, but it tasted more like mackarel, I knew none of them, some were slightly like roach but all different t any I have seen in England- P62 Saturday Jan 8th I have omitted to state that for several days past the thermometer has been gradually rising and today is up to 74 – this morning Mr Lownes to who Matthew had written came down and said the passengers must be landed as quickly as possible as our days did not count whilst they were on board, as soon therefore as they had gone, Capt. McLay and I went on shore to get up the tents for them, Mathew staying on board to get the sick off a D. B was getting on so very slowly with them – we of course took plenty of hands with us. In less than 2 hours we gathered together all the tents having to bring them considerable distance instead of them being all on the ground as Dr. B Informed us they were, (what he has been about all the day yesterday I can’t tell) and erected them in about 30 – when we came off to the ship and found Matthew had got off the sick with the two doctors and got already all the luggage belonging to the married people and single men on deck ready for transhipping on shore, which was soon accomplished – much quicker than Dr. B wished, as hey poured on him so fast he did not know what to do with them, and many would have to look out for themselves. Dr. Barnett has taken charge of the healthy and Dr. Johnson of the sick department. The latter will have to remain with his patients until they are all well. If the former keep healthy for a week or 10 days no fresh cases occurring we hope to get practique when all these will have to be re-embarked and conveyed up to Sydney – the single women are to remain on board for the present in all events – There being no accommodation for them on shore, all the house room being occupied – We have the satisfaction of getting a paper every morning and this morning it is double size containing the news brought by us, also stating that we have made the quickest passage on record. Matthew intended to have sent copies of two very complimentary testimonials received by Capt. McLay from the passengers but has not yet had an opportunity- the Doctors also received testimonials – I wrote to Dalgety Gene and Co Melbourne which Matthew enclosed to Mr. Lownes to forward – enquiring whether they had any information to give of the "Mary" as it is very possible I may get an answer before I can get away from Sydney, which should we be detained here long I trust I may. Dr. Barnett did not return to the ship until nearly 9 having been busy arranging the people, Mr. Johnson has taken up his abode with his patients and will not be allowed on board again. P63 Sunday Jan 9th This morning the Health Officer and Immigration Agent paid us a visit in good time and informed us the single women were to remain on board, this is unfortunate as it must necessarily cause some delay in the cleansing of the ship, there being so many of them, and especially as they are to wash the whole of their clothes before which is done it is not much use washing outside – son after breakfast Matt. the Capt. and I went on shore and had a look round the settlement, this being the first time the former had landed, though he made several visits to and fro with the boats yesterday. We also visited Mr Johnson and found him pretty comfortably settled, tho his residence us a very small wooden house consisting of two rooms – and bade him advise, as we do expect to be able to speak to him again, hoping to be away before he is likely to be. About noon it came on to blow pretty fresh from the South with sudden puffs from the high land on the opposite shores., the Capt. ordered 18 fathoms more chain to be given the
ship, and was very uneasy all the afternoon as we had then only 45 fathoms out and durst not give her any more as we were within 2 ships lengths of the rocks on to which the wind was blowing. – This small basin is certainly not suited for a ship like this to lie in – Whilst we were at dinner one of the Single Women known amongst themselves as Capt. Austin went down the accommodation ladder to receive a parcel out of the boat and by some means slipped into the water she however kept hold of the man ropes and thus did not get deeply immersed. – Mr. miles read prayers in the afternoon which we attended as usual. Dr. B slept on shore with his charges. Monday January 10th The Market boat was down this morning again and brought us a stock of fresh meat and vegetables and including some excellent potatoes, which latter was more than I expected, having understood they were so indifferent – enjoyed it greatly, though we have had plenty of fresh meat all the voyage, and our provisions have been excellent there is still a sort of charm at being again supplied from the shore – as we have now been since arrival, some of the passengers when we landed yesterday were glorying over their meal and held it up to show us – I regret to state there having been 2 more deaths today, one an adult, Gabriella Miles, daughter of the schoolmaster, a very fine girl whom we had often noticed as she apparently enjoyed sitting on the deck in a storm when most of the others were below crying and she took cold in the hurricane on the last day of the old year as she was laid up a day or two afterwards, the whole family are of course fearfully distressed – Matthew and I have been fishing this afternoon and caught a nice fry for tea of the smaller description described the other day. They were very good. By some means or other we did not get our paper as usual today which we miss greatly, as it is almost impossible to read a book here. P64 Tuesday January 11th Capt. McLay having this morning received a letter from the Government Authorities informing him that the passengers luggage must all be landed, it was immediately commenced and the boats have been constantly plying to and from the shore therewith – there is also a probability of the Single Women being landed, which he is in hopes will be done. Neither Matthew of I landed today as the space allowed for rambling is but limited and nothing to be done. Soon after dinner we had another strong breeze, with squalls which however settled before sun down. Mr. Townes sent us word that if we had any letters for England there was a good opportunity I therefore wrote a hasty letter enclosing a long one within on the 1st Inst. Previous to arrival, to my mother also a few lines to uncle Thomas Marwood enclosing an abstract of this log with the distances run each day I do not yet know how they are going, until we hear from Mr. Townes, not being in town I cannot get any Newspapers to send you, but I trust soon to be able so to do as I am heartily sick of this place – Though if I can we shall have some time to remain here yet, there having been a fresh case of measles this morning for which I suppose we shall have another weeks detention – Capt. McLay whilst fishing this afternoon caught a ground shark about 4 feet long but did not succeed in getting it on board as the hook broke after he had got it some distance out of the water. Wednesday Jan 12th This morning orders came down that the Single Women wee to be landed, and also tents for their accommodation on shore, which the passengers already there have been busy erecting and tomorrow the remainder of the passengers follow. This is a good job as there will now be no impediment to the work to be done on board – Capt. McLay, and Matthew landed to see how they were getting on, I did not, but amused myself with attempting a sketch of the place where all the tents are pitched. It looks more like a soldiers’ encampment than anything, as there are about 90 of them. The last of the Marrried Peoples luggage has been sent off today, tomorrow I hope we shall get clear of them all, but we expect they will have to re-embark and be conveyed to Sydney. By this mornings paper we find the "Ben Nevis" which left Liverpool 27th Sept, arrived in Melbourne on 3rdJan. having been 98 days on the passage, the "Condor" had not arrived and on account of the "Shackamaxon" that we are still considerably ahead of our competitors. Thursday Jan 13th This morning started to land the Single Womens’ luggage which being accomplished they were disembarked with the exception of about 50 who were not able to get owing to the heavy rains at which most of them seemed much pleased, as they do not appear at all anxious to land. It blowing fresh in the afternoon and Capt. McLay not at all liking this place got out the stream anchor
P65 Friday Jan 14th Mr. Miles having been on shore this morning brought a miserable account of the Single Women, stating they were nearly all washed away during the constant rain of last night. Mr. Mile and Capt. McLay landed to see them, and found his account as usual very much exaggerated, indeed there were few who complained. Some few had certainly got rather wet, on their return the remainder were ordered to prepare, when the rain cleared off it then looking rather better upon which there was quite a scene, many of them saying they would not go. One stout Scotch girl who is constantly singing or rather screeching the "Highland Laddie" and consequently known to us, as such, cried most bitterly and would not go until Matthew went down and talked to her – The 4 Miss Miles, daughters of the School master refused positively to go except by force, saying their sister would not have died if left on board. This is absurd as poor girl she had a great wish to be landed, and of course much better there than in a hot ship with so many people – The School master and matron also went with the females, and we are now all clear for the present excepting these four – the ship now scarcely seems like herself everything is so quiet – The Market boat has not come near us today and consequently we are without any news – which is rather annoying a barque having come in yesterday with passengers and we are anxious to know what vessel it is, fancying it to be the Regina which we passed – I think she is too small for that vessel Saturday Jan 15th Another miserable wet day; The Superintendent of Quarantine was along side and says the 4 remaining passengers must be landed, since his visit it has been so much rain there has been no chance of complying with his order – 4.30 pm the market boat has only just mad e her appearance instead of at breakfast time, in consequence of which a days rations have had to be served out to the people on shore – Another ship has arrived and went directly up to Sydney. It is quite distressing to see these ships arrive and go direct up to town whilst we are still here – There is no knowing when we shall get away. She has not brought us yesterdays’ paper that we are still in the dark respecting the arrival on Thursday – Mr. Townes informs MMW that our letters will go by the "Sir James Ross" which is to sail tomorrow and being a fine clipper barque will he expects make a good passage which I hope may prove correct. – At 7 pm the rain having ceased a boat was got ready for the above mentioned 4 passengers, when quite a scene took place, as they still positively refused, 2 of them would go if the others would, but one of hem who we have usually refered to as "Bull dog" from the striking resemblance to that animal both in appearance and character, obstinately refused stating she had taken her solemn oath she would not go without she were carried. Tho the Superintendent told her himself this morning if she did not go they were to compel her. After a very long discussion Matthew succeeded in persuading her to go about 6 pm. On the boat reaching the beach Mr. Miles ordered it off again saying they should not land, tho yesterday when he went he said he had tried to prevail on them to accompany P66 him but had failed in so doing. Mr. Carrol the Superintendent of Quarantine was fortunately ashore and heard him, he immediately told them if they did not land quickly he would compel them he would also see what kind of man we had had to deal with. Mr. Miles after some further argument then landed them out?. As we had also received instructions that all soiled linen was to be washed before we went up, we requested Mr. Miles the other day to get this done, and this afternoon got it back, part unfinished as they appeared to have been keeping some back to make an excuse that they were staying to finish it and that which was nominally finished, was certainly in such a style as I never saw – some of it being certainly worse than when it went, none of it being fit to wear on shore. About an hour after they had landed it came on to rain again very heavily and continued so doing when we retired to visit Townes? Sunday Jan 16th It has been raining tremendously all night, but fortunately this morning is bright and clear and I have said a beautiful day. Br. Barnett coming to dine with us, some large fish have been caught today, one a ground shark weighing about 325lbs., another a groper a strange looking fish, which is only caught on the bottom, from the construction of the latter I should certainly fancy his usual habits are groping along the bottom and thus I presume it has derived its name – We had caught some of these previously but none so large and they are very good to eat – being very firm – It may seem strange to some of the readers of this should anyone take the trouble so to do, that I here record fishing on this day, but I must observe these fish wee caught by the Carpenter and others of the crew, besides which what can we do it is impossible to read all day. There is no one to read service and we cannot go on shore to any. Several of he passengers tempted by the fine day have been bathing on the beach – and apparently
much enjoyed it. I hear of four vessels gone to sea today, one of which was a French Frigate 26 guns, anything but a beauty – and a fine long clipper looking barque which we presumed to be the "Sir James Ross" conveying our letters Monday Jan 17th Quite a change in the weather today – it having been very hot all day the thermometer having been at 80. a very agreeable change for those poor unfortunates in the tents on shore. The drew all busy cleaning the ship, painting and otherwise preparing for our appearance in Sydney, which I trust will now be very soon as it is really quite sufficient to make anyone melancholy lying here day after day. Dr. B visits us each day to see that we are progressing satisfactorily and that a all are well. He informs us that he is really worried with mosquitoes, that is some slight satisfaction to know we are rather better off in this respect. Though not quite free, I am glad to say however I have hitherto escaped. They have paid both Matthew and the Capt. a visit. The "Washington Irving" and a bark went to sea today the latter returned. Tuesday Jan 18th No news still of our release hence, another hot day thermometer is same as yesterday. Sent down the royal yards and painted the rest which greatly improves the ships appearance as I like to royal yards down in harbour – nothing to report. We manage to get thro’ the say somehow, but very unsatisfactorily, too miserable to read – The bark which turned? Back yesterday proved to be "The Sir James Ross" which contains our letters she however got away today. By letters from Mr Townes it appears that when she got to the Heads the crew refused to proceed until they have £10 and 12per month as sailors wages here are indeed fearful, and tho ships ought to have very high freights indeed or must necessarily sink a great deal of money. I have got 2 or 3 specimens of the beetle tribe which flew on board the ship. P67 Wednesday Jan 19th Weather still very fine though not so hot as yesterday- in the afternoon Matthew, the Capt. and myself pulled off a little distance from the ship and fish, but were very unsuccessful, only one having been taken and that by Matthew – he hooked another but did not get it on board. The ship looked exceedingly well from the boat, having been blacked round, yards were well square and we are anxiously looking for permission to re-embark and convey our passengers to town, which has to be done, their being no steamers or other conveyance for them as in NewYork – Mr Towns in his letter to Matthew says he hopes we may get up next week, some consolation certainly for us the prospect of another week here – we shall also I fear miss the Regatta which takes place this day next week – had the ship been in Sydney. Matthew had some thoughts of entering his gig as there is a race for ships gigs four oared, tho the one on board is a 5 oared gig, but being a very fine boat she would I think have had a very good chance. If she won he intended giving the prize (£15 to the men which would give them a capital days work. On return from the fishing excursion found Dr. Barnett on board he knowing I was collecting insects had brought me a very strange looking creature which I fear I cannot describe it is about 6 or 8 inches long, with 6 very long legs the body which is very thin most resembles a small twig from a tree. I hope however to get it safely home, when if the reader is anxious to see it I shall be most happy to show the same. Thursday Jan 20th The weather is still beautiful and it is really distressing to be cooped up here. The only place on which we are allowed to land being the beach just under the Quarantine ground and it is quite uncertain when we shall be set at liberty. Nothing occurred worthy of notice today – Several ships came in today but none I knew – I wrote Messrs. Dalgety Gore and Co Melbourne but did not send it to town as the papers state the "Cleopatra" was to sail this morning. Friday January 21st Weather still the same, we have shot several birds today one of which we sent to Mr. Johnson to stuff if he has the opportunity, he is collecting specimens of birds. The "Cleopatra" did not sail until this morning so that my letter would have been in time. I however sent it up today so that it will be ready for the first conveyance, also letters for home (mother). These last will be conveyed by the "Lydia" Capt. McDonald, she has all new cargo on board and is now taking old, and will sail on Tuesday morning – This days paper contains a paragraph respecting the Beejapore giving a return of the causes
of sickness since our arrival which must have been obtained from the Health Officer to whom the doctors have to send a daily report – which states our release from Quarantine to be quite uncertain – A very pretty little brig came in which proved to be the "Lizzie Webber" from Melbourne, having brought passengers there from Sunderland, she was the first Emigrant vessel from there to this Colony. P68 Saturday Jan 22nd During the night a great deal of rain has fallen but it is now quite bright and clear again. The painter with two or three assistants has been busy painting the poop deck the rails covering boards etc. were done a few days ago – that we now look quite smart again – Dr. Barnett has got instructions to make a division amongst his portion of the Emigrants setting apart the most healthy portion if they keep perfectly well for a few days they will be sent on board again which process is to be continued until all are on board. This looks very much like the commencing to move and also could be I should fancy have been done just as well on our first arrival – However orders must be obeyed – the whole of the sleeping births being taken down, the passengers will have to sleep on the deck whilst on board. That the Authorities surely cannot keep them long in such a position, there being of course now, no division whatever to separate the people – The Carpenter has made one small box for me to keep my insects in that I hope to get a good collection and get them home all safe. Sunday Jan 23rd The weather continues very fine, this being Sunday there is of course nothing doing on board, and all is perfectly still nothing to attract out attention or vary the monotony of this dull place. I occupied part of the day by writing letters to my Sister Harriett and Mr Forrest to be forwarded to "Sarah Sands" steamer which is to sail on Thursday for England via Melbourne and the Cape. Seamen being very scarce in Sydney and easily obtaining £10 to £12 per month, The Capt. and Matthew, being strongly advised by Mr. Towns so to do, called all the crew into the cabin and promised them £2 per month extra provided they fulfilled their agreement as per articles, this to commence from the day we leave the place – This inducement, with a strict watch will I trust enable them to keep all the crew. They appear to be highly pleased with it. Monday 24th Jan The weather the same as before, our letter not being delivered very regularly to Mr. Towns, sometimes taking days to reach him we sent our English letters off today to ensure their being in time for the steamer. Tuesday Jan 25th I suspect I shall be nearly the colour of the natives if we do not get up shortly as the sun is tanning me considerably as it usually does, and there is of course not much shade for us on deck and it is impossible to stay below all day especially as fish are very plentiful in this bay which we generally continue to lessen in number daily. Mr Towns in his letter states that the Beejapore is still bearer of the latest news from England – the ships which have arrived since we did, all left before us. Wednesday Jan 26th This is a great day here, being the day of the Regatta, the Newspapers also states it is the anniversary of the Colony but whether it is of the foundation or discovery thereof or what I do not know – but shall most probably ascertain on my arrival in Sydney which I trust will be soon – The Yachts had to come around the light ship and also P69 A reef called the Sow and pigs, which are in sight from the ship – that we saw them round these – a lateen rigged craft was first considerably – our anticipations of winning the prize for ships gig, of course had already disappeared being still in limbo and not allowed to stir out of this delightful ground!! In which we have now been detained 20 days – Oh misery of miseries, surely Job can never have been in quarantine- Matthew and the Capt. are pretty fully occupied most of the day, hunting sandflies, mosquitos, fleas etc. with which they (are) sadly troubled, I am happy however to state that so far I have escaped the bites of any of these creatures – which since the Emigrants have landed abound greatly in the cabin, there being no-one left in the between decks for them to feed on, they have found their way to us. Thursday January 27th No news of our intended release yet we have now been here three weeks and it is still as uncertain as
ever when we may get away. Surely it must now be soon. The newspapers today speak highly of yesterdays sport and that everything passed off most satisfactorily, we saw some of the fireworks in the evening – A vessel called the "Hamilton Campbell Kidson" being advertised as conveying Post Office mail to Bombay, I commenced a letter home thinking it will reach England earlier than those sent by the direct ships, the mail bags close on Saturday at noon. I intended sending it off today but as Matthew thinks of writing also determined to keep it until tomorrow, which would also give me more time to write. I must not omit to state this days paper contains a long article on the steam ships between England and here, the last one of which enumerated is the "Cleopatra" arrived on the 5th it then goes on to state "the day after this a noble ship the Beejapore" arrived here bringing us news 37 days later than that by the steamer". The Cleopatra sailed a few days ago for Melbourne and Adelaide whence she returns to this port. – Yesterday having been a holiday and thus no work doing the sailing of the "Sarah Sands" for England has been put off until tomorrow Friday January 28th Both Matthew and myself had a miserable night neither of us being able to sleep owing to the constant attacks of these gentry described a day or two ago – it was with great pleasure we hailed the morning and during the day had a regular turn out of bedding and had regular hunt, in which we were very successful, also caught some animals whose name I will not mention – The "Regina" which we spoke (to) at sea, came in today having been 128 days on the passage, we have thus gained 23 days on her since being in company. I send off today my letter to England enclosed to Messrs. Geo. King and Co. of Bombay. I hope it will be in time but I see this mornings paper states the Mail closes at 6 this evening – which is very strange, being yesterday announced for noon of Saturday. Also wrote again to Messrs. Dalgety Gore and Co which will I expect go per "Waratah" Steamer. – The Sarah Sands came down into Watson’s bay this afternoon and brought up there. – the cargo per Regina consisting principally of wine and spirits will come to a capital market as these articles have been quoted high for some time and stocks very low- the owners thereof will thus benefit by her long voyage. P70 Saturday Jan 29th Another Government Emigrant vessel arrived this morning the "Tamar" from Plymouth which place she left October 19th. She is however more fortunate than us having gone up to Sydney without detention. The Sarah Sands went to sea this morning about 9.30 we saluted her with 2 guns and hoisted signals "wishing him a good passage" but I suppose all on board were too busy as they did not reply in any way. The paper this morning in giving some account of the Regina’s voyage state they saw several large icebergs in 37 South, he thus appears to have been considerably further south than we were as we kept in the 46 to 47. the "Alipore" is also reported arriving in Melbourne on the 19th Inst. But no "Condor" yet. The Argo also arrived the same day having left Liverpool on the 10th Oct. The Alipore from Dartmouth the 16th of the same month – This days paper states the Caldew hence for San Francisco arrived Tepole??? 21st December This will be I expect H Barrich’s vessel, which I understood he thought was on her way home when I left England. It appears some Captains when they get out here cannot find their way home again. Sunday Jan 30th Notice having been received yesterday by Dr. Barnett that the Presbyterian Ministers had received permission to come down from Sydney and preach to the Emigrants the shed on the beach was cleared for them. They however did not make their appearance until about 6 in the evening – we did not go on shore. Dr. Barnett came off to dinner today. His legs are dreadfully swollen and inflamed from bites his tent being at the edge o the wood he gets the full benefit there from, his son is in a very similar state. – After dinner several of the sailors were bathing alongside the ship and most of them jumped in from the forecastle atop of the accommodation ladder a height of about 24 feet above the water. They appeared to enjoy it greatly. I certainly should not have liked to follow their example from such a height. Monday January 31st Little did we think when coming into this Cove on the 6th Inst. That this the last of the month we should still be here. 25 days have we now been here and how much longer we have to remain is yet unknown to us at all events, the Health officer was alongside the ship today. He gives us some slight hopes of getting out soon but of course as is always the case with Government officials his answer to our enquiries were very general and something like a Cabinet Minister’s you may almost construe as
you will. Tuesday February 1st Horror of horrors, another month commenced and we are still without any news of our release. The Emigrants per "Tamar" are on view today, Single Men and Married Couples, they are kept on board the ship and parties wishing servants go on board, and there hire them. The Single women are landed at the depot and their turn comes on Thursday I presume the same ordeal will have to be gone through with those on board this ship. We must first however get orders to take them on board again – The Condor is at length reported having arrived at Melbourne on the 20th Inst. She left Liverpool the day after us and not four days as we understood Capt. Leighton when we spoke (to) him on the passage – He reports having spoken (to) several vessels but does not mention this ship, having doubtless heard of our arrival so long before him P71 Wednesday February 2nd It has been blowing pretty fresh last night. Several ships went to sea this morning. in fact it has been a busy day amongst the shipping. Several arrivals also having taken place. 3 ships with top of spars two with main topgallant mast one with for and mizzen dp-.? Watching the arrivals and sailings forms our principal amusement, it being the only chance we have to witness from our prison as we can scarcely call it anything else. A step has at length been taken towards our departure hence which will I trust be followed up quickly by others, it is that the Doctor is to send on board all the single women with their luggage etc. and the healthy portion of the married people which he had drafted off previously – Before any one comes the whole of their luggage has to be examined by Mr. Carroll the Superintendent, to see that everything has been properly washed etc. and every precaution used to prevent the possibility of carrying any sickness to town. This is to be commenced with in the morning. Thursday Feb 3rd According to instructions the Single Women’s luggage having been examined was immediately placed in the boats and brought on board together with themselves. Mr. Miles also accompanied them to take charge thereof. His wife having stayed on shore to attend her youngest son who is ill. Dr. B says the berth boards have to be erected again before they come on board. A large ship came down from Sydney this afternoon and brought up in Watson’s Bay not being able to beat out the wind being very light. She has two tiers of ports and on enquiry proved to be the H.C. Kidston for Bombay which I expected had gone thereon four days ago. Friday Feb. 4th Mr. Carroll not having examined the remainder of the luggage we have got no more people off today. Doctor Barnett was on board this morning and brought with him a snake of the same description as the one I have. Which on referring to any memoranda I do not find mentioned it was caught by some of the sailors in the forecastle and must I suppose have come up the chain cable. I certainly never should have dreamed of their getting off to us here. Mine was bottled in spirits but the one brought off today by the Dr. Matthew and I amused ourselves by skinning and he intends taking the skin home. The "Whitby" belonging to the Chapmans came down from Sydney today and brought up the wind being right in. Mr. Carroll informed the Capt. we are going to have a Southerly Buster as they term it (which implies a sudden and heavy squall) either tonight or tomorrow night, as the glass is however still the same we o not expect it tonight. I hope it may pass us altogether but Mr. C. spoke with such certainty. He judged most by the haze hanging about the hills. – We got part of the luggage off this evening just before dusk. Sunday February 5th The morning the "H.C.Kidston" went to sea the wind was very light indeed that she moved but slowly and came pretty near in beating out. I hoped he will have a good passage and convey my letter on him to catch the Mail starting for England. We got off from the shore this morning the remainder of the people recently drafted out in conjunction with the Single Women as perfectly healthy, and the rest of their luggage and hope Monday will bring us an order to take them to town if not having come as expected this morning. The "Shackamaxon" is reported today as having arrived at Adelaide on the 20th Ult. She sailed from Liverpool on the 4th October 8 days before us. She is an American vessel and has 656 Government Emigrants. Soon after seven Mr. Carroll’s prophecy was verified, the evening was very fine and sultry until the time mentioned, whence the sky suddenly became thick and dark and almost immediately the wind from nearly calm increased to a heavy gale, it however luckily did not last long and we rode it out safely. It was accompanied heavy rain thunder and lightening, which
continued some time after the gale had passed away. The lightening was very splendid, but the thunder was not nearly so loud as have had before. Sunday Feb. 6th This morning being so fine we were tempted to go on shore and bathe. We should have done so long since but the crew only being allowed to go to the beach when the passengers were, could not of course bathe then and the Capt. did not like to go elsewhere after refusing the crew, after we returned they were all allowed to go, which most of them availed themselves P72 of. Mr. Miles read prayers while we were on shore, we have really been so disgusted with his behaviour lately that we could not have attended, he is the most troublesome man I have seen for long and is constantly endeavouring to brew some disturbance his hatred to the Doctor is extreme and if he can thwart him in any way does it. The Whitby sailed today for Kiapara, New Zealand her present Captain’s name is I see Bruce. I expected at Coll?? had got her home ere this. Monday Feb 7th Had another bathe before breakfast, it being high water we had a much pleasanter dip than yesterday. MMW received a letter from Mr. Towns stating he expected we should be released early in the morning also from the Immigration agent, but on seeing Dr. Barnett our expectations were soon dashed to the ground as he had a letter from the Health Officer stating that the remainder of the healthy people, in fact all from the Healthy side were to go up in the ship which he thinks will be released on Thursday. We are however now getting accustomed to disappointment as almost to look upon them as a matter of course. We have had two Births on board the ship today. Several ships have come in today , particulars of which we shall ascertain tomorrow. I must not forget my collection. I have this morning got a very fine lizard, it is alive. If I should return direct I shall endeavour to keep him so. Tuesday Feb 8th The Health Officer was on board today having at length released us from the miseries of quarantine after 33 days trial thereof, which is I am sure quite sufficient time for anyone to judge I sincerely trust I may never have to undergo such another trial again. The Pilot was also down just after the Health Officer having been sent down by Mr. Towns who expected the ship would go up direct, but Mr. Carroll the Superintendent here will not clear us until everything is put in the same order as we found it, the ground thoroughly swept and all the rubbish burnt. It will be well if all is finished to his satisfaction to enable us to get away tomorrow. – The Captain received notice from one of the passengers that 15 of the crew had got their clothes packed up in some of the passengers boxes and that they intended to run, this was told him in secret but he said to the Capt. he could not think it right to be possessed of such information and not inform him – in consequence the Capt. determined to keep a stricter watch. Mr Macrae the fourth mate who now been some time in the ship and has now come out as a Supernumerary to settle here has kept watch since we arrived, but now he will have more, as he intended to do on arrival in Sydney. Mathew and I therefore walked the poop until about half past 12 when we called the Capt. There has been a very suspicious looking boat cruising near the ship for two days, which the men may possibly have signalised to unknown, though a strict watch has been kept on her. Wednesday Feb. 9th Got all the work finished on shore and our pilot having come on board soon got the anchors up (one of which was already hove up short) and proceeded to Sydney where we anchored between 2 and 3 pm between Pinchgut and Fort Macquarie. Mr. Towns had a steamer in attendance to take the Single Women out which was soon effected, they were landed at Fort Macquarie and then marched up to the depot where they will be kept until they are hired if such as intend hiring – Those having friends will I presume be allowed to go to them if they wish – The Capt. received notice from some of the men that several of the crew were ready for a start and also that if they could not get away they intended to knock of work. What excuse they can make if they do so I cannot tell and surely think they will not adopt such a course as this. They will however find it very difficult to desert without they attempt to use force P73
Thursday Feb 10th Mathew and I watched again until nearly one o’clock when the Capt. relieved us. There were several boats prowling about which would doubtless have assisted our men off if an opportunity presented, they were many of them about the decks until late but all are on board this morning. They however when called on by the Mate at 6 to the number of 19 refused to turn out or do any duty the Mate called them a second time and received the same answer, he afterwards called them out individually, but with no better effect. The Capt. having duly logged the particulars went ashore and got a warrant for them and all of them were taken to gaol. Two clerks from the Immigration Office came on board today and commenced to take a list of the passengers calling them up with their respective families and taking an account of their qualifications, trades etc. which will occupy them all day and tomorrow also. Friday Feb. 11th This morning we were awoke at 6 by the Capt. who came to inform us that Mr. McGuire had taken advantage of the less strict watch kept last night (owing to the Men having been landed) and had escaped on a life buoy. He was seen by some of the Passengers at 3 o’clock this morning that it must have been very near daylight when he escaped – MMW went ashore again as yesterday immediately after to see about getting the passengers rations off. Capt. McLay and Mr. Wells the mate went ashore about 10 to attend the Police Court respecting his Men, who when called upon had nothing to say against anyone, except one man who asked why the Mate had not called them up at the usual time 6 instead of about half past. the Capt’ having told him to give them a little longer time owing to them being up later the night previous – The Magistrates said they had never heard such a case and gave them 12 weeks imprisonment and would have added hard labour but the Capt. begged them off the latter. The Magistrates considered he was too lenient as they fully deserved it. They will all be put on board the ship again when she is nearly ready for sea and if the Men refuse to work her out, assistance will be sent either by the Police or HMS Calliope now stationed here. I did not mention yesterday that MMW and the Capt’ went on board the same ship in the morning the former having got a letter of introduction to Sir Evereard Home from Mr. Towns. He did not see as Capt. Sir E.H. was unwell but the Lieutenant said that they would be very glad to render any assistance and if he wished they would send a non-commissioned officer and two sentries. This however was thought unnecessary as Capt. McLay intended sending the refractories to gaol It was then agreed that if any assistance was desired the Union Jack at the Main would be directly answered. MMW and I went on shore and had a range round part of the town, but were principally in the business part thereof as he had some things to attend to. Saturday Feb12th The Emigration Clerks having finished their list yesterday, Capt H.H. Brown, Dr. Alleyne and Mr. Mann the Commissioners of Emigration came on board about 10.30 pm and immediately mustered them one family at a time to enquire if they had any complaints to make – All expressed themselves perfectly satisfied except 12 or 14 Scotchmen who Miles had persuaded to bear him out in his charges, and from the manner in which these men spoke it was very evident they were no complaints of their own, but that they had been tutored by Miles. After the examination was over some people came off from the shore and several of the Emigrants were engaged. At night about 35 went away in the Steamer to Maitland it was nearly 11 when she called for them – I spent a great part of the day on shore, there from I cannot say much in favour of, the harbour is magnificent. P74 Sunday Feb 13th Capt. McLay having determined not to allow any of the crew to go on shore, Matthew and I decided also to remain on board all day – several of the crew asked permission to go and appeared much disappointed at being refused Monday Feb 14th to Tuesday Feb 22rd There being nothing particular to note during this time I have decided to include all under one head. The first few days the ship was like a fair owing to the number of people on board engaging and seeking for servants. The Emigration clerks were on board during this time making out the agreements, one copy of which is kept in the Government Office. The Single Women were hired at the depot on Thursday and Friday the 17th and 18th . Matthew , the Capt. and the Doctor have also been twice at the Emigration Office at the enquiry instituted by Miles, who has made many false statements, in which he is backed out by his wife and family. I do not however fear their being able to prove them such when
he has made all his charges and it is their turn to reply thereto – I wish the evidence was given under oath in order that he might be taken up for perjury which he most richly deserves – On Sunday the 20th we were ashore and visited the Government Gardens which are very fine. We afterwards went to church and returned on board soon after five to dinner – On Monday I took my passage per "Cleopatra" Screw Steamer for Melbourne and took another survey of the town. I was of course frequently on shore in the mean time. It is a curious long straggling place consisting principally of one main street named George Street. There are of course several others but this is the main artery , the residences of the Gentry appear to be principally along the banks of the river – there are but few near the town. The streets are laid out very well and in the course of time it will without doubt be a very fine place. Two great requisites at present are pavement for the foot passengers, and water carts to allay the dust in the streets which is fearful now – There are several handsome stone buildings and shops in George Street and many others in the course of erection. These must be very costly now, as masons wages are 18/- to 20/- per day and joiners 20/- to 25/- and even 30/- but when once occupied the enormous profits soon pay for the return cost. Wednesday Feb 23rd At 4pm I embarked on board the "Cleopatra" for Melbourne… Journal of a voyage to Sydney New South Wales in the ship "Beejapore"
The ship “Beejapore”.
Rigging: Ship, sheathed in felt and yellow metal in 1851, partly fastened
with iron bolts.
Tonnage: 1676 tons.
Construction: 1851 in Saint John, using Oak, Pine, Hackmatac and Birch.
Owners: Willis & Co.
Port of Registry: Liverpool. England.
Port of Survey: Liverpool. England.
The “Beejapore” arrived several miles off Sydney Heads on Wednesday evening the 5th January 1853, where the passage was of, 84 days, 22 hours Mean Time, and would have been flying the yellow quarantine flag as required by law, and was immediately placed in quarantine.
Sydney Morning Herald
Thursday, January 6, 1853.
The Beejapore, from Liverpool, eighty five days out, was reported from the Signal Station yesterday evening, and we consequently began to make preparations for giving our readers a batch of late English news this morning. We soon, however, learnt that the vessel had sickness on
board, and our reporter, who had gone several miles outside the heads to her, was not allowed to approach sufficiently near to obtain newspapers or information. She has upwards of a thousand people on board. We hope to receive some papers from her in the course of the day.
Soon after, the ship “Beejapore” was brought into Spring Cove
(along side the Quarantine Station) for quarantine.
The following book that was researched,
The Beejapore, 1347 tons, was one of the few two-decked ships chartered experimentally by the British Emigration Commission to test the practicability of reducing emigration costs by chartering larger vessels. When the experiment was deemed a failure, both because of widespread sickness on this and a similar vessel which carried immigrants to Victoria and because it was found to be „impossible to control so large a body of persons‟, the Emigration Commissioners decided that they would never again charter a vessel carrying passengers on two decks.
According to Dr. Haynes G. Alleyne, who had been appointed Health Officer at Port Jackson, (Dr. Alleyne had little quarantine experience before his appointment), stated the Beejapore was a remarkably fine ship but with inadequate ventilation for the large number of passengers. Measles and Scarlet Fever, which had been rife in the Liverpool Emigration Depot, and had been carried on board and I adult and 54 children on the eighty-five day passage, died mostly from measles and typhoid fever.
On receiving the master‟s report of disease on board, Dr. Alleyne immediately quarantined the vessel in Spring Cove adjacent to the Quarantine Station. The following morning Dr. Alleyne met up with the ship‟s surgeon superintended on shore to inspect the four “black painted” buildings on the Healthy Ground which could accommodate only about 100 people, and the hospital on the Sick Ground could only accommodate 50 people, and was told that most of the immigrants would have to be housed in tents, since the ship had to be cleared for cleansing.
It is reported that there were over 1000 persons on board the ship where all the passengers and crew were to be placed into quarantined.
The Healthy Ground was on the higher ground, lower down was the
Sick Ground, lower down again was the Burial Ground.
The First Burial Ground was located on the slopes above Quarantine Beach.
All three Grounds were within sight of each other.
Sick people were landed as quickly as possible and placed under the care of a doctor sent from Sydney.
Plans to land the large contingent of single girls was deferred, however, following a visit to the ship by Dr. Alleyne, instructions were given that all clothing was to be thoroughly washed before landing.
On the 12th January in intermittent rain, about 150 single girls were landed with their luggage, bedding and cooking utensils.
On the following morning, T. R. Miles, who had been appointed, teacher and religious instructor on the passage, visited their camp and found that the clothing and bedding of many had been soaked by torrential rain during the night. T. R. Miles complained to the ship‟s captain, where the captain stated that T.R. Miles‟s account was „as usual very much exaggerated”. Orders were then given for the disembarkation of the remaining single girls despite the tearful pleas of those who were unnerved by the sight of the Quarantine Station, the Burial Ground and the Sentries.
It is stated that “Two hundred single woman were let loose in the bush”
In the 34 days of quarantine at the Quarantine Station,
10 adults and 52 children of the ship, Beejapore, died.
The Primary reason for quarantine was given as,
Scarlet Fever, Measles and Typhoid Fever.
It is estimated that 228 people are buried at The First Burial Ground,
at The Quarantine Station, inclusive of the 62 deaths of the ship Beejapore.
Burials of the dead were hasty affairs from which any friends or relatives on the Healthy Ground were excluded to prevent the risk of infection. Generally the bodies were carried to their graves by convalescent immigrants or the people appointed to assist the doctor in charge.
Until 1881, there was no formal service at the time of burial.
Of the total immigrants of 624 adults, 305 children and 40 crew,
of the ship, Beejapore, a total of 11 adults and 106 children died.
A „Heartlessly Callous” release from Quarantine”
At the end of each quarantine, government-assisted immigrants were ferried to Sydney and taken to the Immigrant‟s Barracks where they remained at government expense for a short period while they found employment. Immigrants who had arrived under the Bounty Immigrants Regulations, however, were ferried to Sydney and left on the wharf to make their own arrangements for accommodation and employment.
Prior to the ship Beejapore coming to Sydney in 1853, some immigrants who had completed their quarantine period,
were ferried up to Sydney in government boats.
Four young boys, with the surname of Dickson, age from four to ten years, without any one to look after them, were in this group.
The boys father David Dickson had died in quarantine from Typhus Fever.
The following day the boy‟s youngest brother, 1 year old David also died.
Their mother was seriously ill in quarantine.
Mercifully, a Sydney auctioneer, Mr. Plock, provided the homeless Bounty Immigrants with temporary accommodation in his auction room in
lower George Street.
“Journal of Johnson” (crew).
(The handwritten diary is a Journal of the above voyage and was near impossible to decipher).
There were ten babies born on the passage, six female and four male.
Further research from the,
NEW SOUTH WALES
of Friday, 11 February, 1853.
Published by Authority.
Colonial Secretary‟s Office,
Sydney, 10th February, 1853.
IMMIGRANTS PER “BEEJAPORE”.
His Excellency the GOVERNER GENERAL has directed it to be notified, for general information, that the Ship “Beejapore” with 698 Immigrants, arrived yesterday, in Port Jackson.
The callings (occupations) of the Male Immigrants and the number of each calling, are as follows, viz:-
Joiner and Cabinetmaker
Slater and Plasterer
Teacher and Minister
On Saturday, the twelfth instant, between the hours of 1 and 4 p.m., and following days, between the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m, the hiring of the Male Immigrants will be proceeded with.
Before 1 o‟clock in the afternoon of the twelfth instant, or at any other times than those fixed, as above stated, for the hiring of the Immigrants, no stranger or person in quest of servants will be admitted, or allowed to remain on board. Strict orders have been given to the Policeman on duty in the ship, to enforce the observance of this rule.
All applicants for servants must be made to the Surgeon Superintendent on board, and the Immigrants will be cautioned against hiring themselves to any person without his sanction, and without a formal agreement, and to be signed by the two contracting parties, and witnessed by an Officer of the Immigration Department, who will attend on board the ship for that purpose.
Before sanctioning any engagement, the Surgeon Superintended will be required to satisfy himself of the respectability of the hiring party, either by reference to the Officer of the Immigration Department who will be in attendance, or by such other means of enquiry as may be available.
No stranger will be allowed to visit the „tween decks of the vessel unless accompanied by the Surgeon Superintendent. Any person infringing this rule will be ordered to quit the ship forthwith.
The Ship will be anchored at the entrance of Farm Cove, and will be provided with an external accommodation ladder.
The unmarried females (about one hundred and seventy six in number) will be landed from the vessel, and lodged in the Depot at Hyde Park Barracks, where they can be hired, one-half on Monday, the 14th, and the remaining half on Tuesday, the 15th instant, between the hours of 2 and 4 in the afternoon of each day, by employees whose respectability is know at the Immigration Office, or who bring introductory letters from persons of known respectability, provided that such employers do not keep inns or other houses of public entertainment.
By His Excellency‟s Command
E. DEAS THOMSON
Newspaper Transcript Sydney Morning Herald January 7th, 1853; Edition ? [Ref: 853t0012]
The Beejapore brings 911 immigrants. Unfortunately 56 deaths have occurred during the voyage, & 1 death took place only 3 days ago. There are between 30 & 40 cases of sickness now on board. The vessel has been placed in quarantine.
Additional-SMH 8 Jan 1853—The Beejapore embarked 967 Government emigrants,at Liverpool, of whom 342 were children. Of the adults about one half are from the Isle of Skye, & about 200 are Paisley weavers. Fifty six deaths occurred on the passage, of which 55 were children, principally from scarlet fever & measles. The other death was that of an adult from apoplexy. Eighty was the number of cases of measles which occurred on board, & twenty of scarlet fever. At the present time there are only 13 patients under the doctors hands, all children suffering from measles, but most of these are in an improving state. The fever first emanated from the depot at Plymouth, in which unfortunately, the emigrants resided previous to their embarkation. It is supposed that the ship will be released from quarantine about the end of next week.
Newspaper Transcript Sydney Morning Herald January 19th, 1853; Edition ? [Ref: 853t0034]
We, certain of the passengers on board the Beejapore, emigrant vessel, now lying in Spring Cove, are anxious that our case should be properly understood by the residents of Sydney & the colony at large.
We are convinced that from the paragraph announcing the arrival of the ship, how much alarm has been needlessly created in the minds of the resident colonists. That, by this time, the sanitary condition of the emigrants must have been held as truly deplorable to themselves, & extremely dangerous to the future health of the colonial population.
Our object in the present communication is, therefore, to disabuse the minds of the population of new South Wales, through the columns of your journal, & have our case brought directly under the consideration of the colonial authorities.
1 During the passage there was only one death from the adult population on board the Beejapore, & that had no connection with contagion or infection.
2 Since being confined to Spring Cove there have been only two deaths among the adult immigrants neither of which arose from infection or contagion.
3 We are divided into two sections –the one on what is known as the sick ground, the other on the healthy ground. Among the immigrants on the latter, amounting to more than 700 individuals, young & old, there is not one case of sickness. Among the population on the former, there are many individuals in a state of perfect health, who have passed from the one section to the other, rather than be separated from their families.
4 The diseases which have manifested themselves among the immigrants have been measles & certain forms of scariatius, which have been confined to the very young.
5 A number of the early deaths among the infant passengers arose from neither one nor the other of the diseases just mentioned, but from causes yet to be enquired into in an investigation about to be opened by the colonial authorities.
6 Under the facts now mentioned we think it extremely hard that we should be confined in this barren spot without receiving any direct information from the colonial authorities as to what line of action they intend to adopt towards us in reference to the period of detention here.
7 As we have received no information from the Surgeon Superintendent relative to the instructions he has received from the colonial authorities as to our detention, a matter in which we are all deeply interested, we would humbly request you, or some of your influential & wealthy townsmen, to forward a copy of the quarantine regulations to us for perusal, addressed to the schoolmaster here.
8 We possess no data from which to infer at what period we may hope to be removed from this spot.
Duncan McKenah Thomas Cameron Archibald Hill Alexander Hill Duncan Sharp William Moir Arthur Anderson William Syle Daniel Morrison Robert Brag John Miller Joseph Speirs William Thompson Fulton Buchanan John Caldwell John Miller Daniel McKay Archibald Marshal James Gold David McKay D. S. Miles J. R. Miles
Newspaper Transcript Sydney Morning Herald January 21st, 1853; Edition ? [Ref: 853t0070]
The Beejapore has been in quarantine fourteen days; the following particulars respecting her may be interesting. The day following her arrival in Spring Cove a division was made among the emigrants—the healthy being landed & placed entirely apart from those affected, since which time there have been 18 cases of measles & 5 of scarlet fever transferred from the healthy ground, & 1 case of measles & 2 of fever from the ship; out of these 10 are adults. There have been 16 deaths since her arrival, & as there are still many cases, her removal from quarantine is still uncertain.
‘It would be very satisfactory to land
them all in good health’: Emigrants
and their superintendents at sea
On 6 January 1853, the 1,676-ton double-decked Beejapore arrived in
Sydney after a passage of 86 days. The vessel carried 967 emigrants
including 342 children, from one hemisphere to the other over the
longest oceanic route in the age of sail. On this ship, chartered against
the better judgment of the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners
just three months earlier, twice the usual complement of steerage passengers were aboard. They were housed in two lower steerage
decks in the belly of the ship. Hence an assistant medical officer
was appointed to assist the ship’s doctor, known as the surgeon superintendent, in supervising the public health and hygiene routines on
En route to New South Wales on the hapless Beejapore, Dr A. Barnett
and Dr O. Johnson buried 56 emigrants at sea, 55 five of them
children, mainly infants and toddlers. Apart from one ‘country lad’
who died from apoplexy, they had succumbed to the usual childhood
infections – measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough and diarrhoea. This
death toll represented a voyage loss rate of nearly six per cent, but a
loss rate amongst the children of 16 per cent. There were also several
deaths among the infants born at sea.
On board the Beejapore was a cabin passenger, William Usherwood,
who took great interest in the proceedings on the steerage decks.
There were, he wrote, 1,032 ‘living beings’ on board including cabin
passengers and crew.1 As a cabin passenger, he was more than satisfied
with the efficient and beneficial way in which the burning tar in the
swinging stoves purified and dispersed the foul air ‘that may be collected
from so many people congregating together’. Even to his
refined senses, these methods were efficacious in sweetening the air in
the confined, malodorous spaces below decks. He was, however, not
enamoured of one of the surgeons. More than three weeks into the
voyage, he noted – with no little sarcasm – that Dr Barnett, the assistant
surgeon superintendent, ‘actually felt himself sufficiently well to
go below this afternoon this being the second time only I believe that
he has been there since we sailed. [This] is such an important event
that I cannot allow it to pass without being noticed herein’.
The lack of fervour on the part of one of the surgeon superintendents
did not augur well for hygiene and discipline on the long sea
William Usherwood approved of the enthusiasm of the schoolmistress
and matron, but was alarmed to discover that one young
woman, who had been confined below decks for a misdemeanour, had
attempted to strangle herself with a rope. She was restrained by fellow
emigrants and taken, handcuffed, to the hospital until the sailmaker
could prepare a straitjacket for her to prevent her from harming
herself. To distract the passengers from this disturbing episode, the
surgeon asked the fiddlers to play on deck.
The sheer number of emigrants on board was an ominous portent.
‘We are’, wrote William,
I believe carrying out the largest number of Emigrants which have
gone to this Colony in one ship it would be very satisfactory to land
them all in good health in the shortest space of time but this I fear
we cannot now do. The … adults are all in good health, we have lost
several children but this was quite expected, being always the case,
besides which many of the Infants were unwell when embarked.
Neither the deaths of the infants, nor the causes of their deaths,
attracted the attention of this young man though he was much
affected by the gloom that descended upon the ship when a cabin boy
fell overboard in heavy weather and could not be saved.
On arrival, the Beejapore – the only double decked vessel to sail into
Port Jackson in the 1850s – was visited by the quarantine and health
officers ‘who took our despatches with a pair of tongs’ [and] deposited
[them] in a tin case’. The ship’s passage, according to the NSW
Immigration Agent, H.H. Browne, when he was examined by a Select
Committee on Emigration, ‘was a decided failure’ although it made one
of the fastest ever voyages to Sydney. Owing to the horrendous death
toll, and with emigrants still ailing, the vessel was towed to the quarantine grounds where the married emigrants and cabin passengers were accommodated in wooden houses and tents.2 Troops were brought down
2 Doctors at Sea
from Sydney to prevent emigrants attempting to move beyond the barriers designed to imprison them, and the doctors remained to attend to
the sick. ‘It would be very satisfactory to land them all in good health’ 3
Most vessels sailed non-stop to Australia from the mid-1840s. In the 1850s time saving, record-seeking captains favoured the newly discovered Great Circle route.
Emigrants encountered perilous seas, freezing conditions, and great discomfort when ships sailed this extreme route. To counter the tendency of captains to compete for the fastest sailing time via the high southern latitudes where Antarctic pack ice was often seen, the Emigration Commissioners introduced a ‘modified’ or ‘composite’ Great Circle route. Between 1 April and 1 October (the southern hemisphere’s autumn and winter), ships were forbidden to sail higher than 47 degrees south; between 2 October and 31 March, no higher than 53 degrees south. This course still saved time and distance by, as it were, cutting off a corner of the globe, but saved passengers and crew from the misery occasioned
by the extreme route. The Commission’s policy was difficult to enforce,
but most captains, in deference to their passengers’ comfort, sailed the modified route. From the 1880s a regular steamship service to Queensland sailed through the Suez Canal and via the Torres Strait to northern Queensland ports and Brisbane. However, sailing ships heading
for Perth, Adelaide, Hobart, Melbourne and Sydney tended to follow the modified Great Circle route until after 1900.
Following the introduction of assisted emigration in the twentieth century, steamships heading for the southern states sailed through the Suez and direct from Colombo to the southern capitals. (Map drawn by Margaret Hooper).
William Usherwood was relieved to be at the quarantine station, and
to walk upon dry land again. When a market boat arrived with fresh
meat and vegetables, he ‘enjoyed it greatly though we have had plenty
of fresh meat [from livestock carried on the vessel] all the voyage & our
provisions have been excellent’. The single women stayed on board the
ship. Their presence on board, however, hindered attempts to fumigate
and clean the vessel in preparation for carrying the emigrants on to
Sydney after pratique (permission to land passengers after quarantine)
was granted. With soldiers guarding the ‘sick ground’, the ‘healthy
ground’, and the ‘burial ground’, the young single women were fearful
of disembarking. Despite their apprehension, they were eventually
landed with the others at the inadequately provisioned quarantine
station, where the healthy and the sick were housed in about 90 tents
under the care of the ship’s surgeon superintendents.
William was impressed by the military presence at the camp but,
like countless immigrants before and after, he was driven mad by the
‘musquitoes’, and distressed to find that, having spent three weeks at
the station, his incarceration was to be extended. After 25 days in quarantine, he wrote, the emigrants were gradually re-boarded for the
three-hour journey to Sydney, during which time two more infants
were born. On arrival, immigration officials boarded as usual, and
interviewed each family, or single emigrant, one by one. ‘All people
expressed themselves perfectly satisfied except 12 or 14 Scotchmen’.
Upon cross-examination it was found that although the Scots had
no complaints of their own, the ship’s schoolmaster, in an attempt
to confirm his own grievances, had coerced them into making false
Rather than leave the ship immediately when it docked in Sydney,
William stayed to observe the hiring routines on board:
The first few days the ship was like a fair owing to the number of
people on board engaging for and seeking for servants. The Emigration
Clerks were on board during this time making out the [hiring]
Agreements, one copy of which is kept in the government office,
the single women were hired at the depot.
From William Usherwood’s descriptions of quarantine, and the carnival-
like atmosphere on board after pratique was granted, one might
never guess that, during the emigrants’ wretched 34-day (not 25 as
William reported) quarantine at Spring Cove, another 52 children and
ten adults from the Beejapore had died, mainly from ‘fever of a typhoid
4 Doctors at Sea
kind’.3 This doubling of the deaths among the large contingent of
migrants who had placed their trust in the ship’s personnel shocked
officials on both sides of the globe. When the vessel docked in Sydney, William was disconcerted by the amount of time taken up by an official enquiry into complaints made by the schoolmaster, who had alleged that at the quarantine ground the young single women’s clothing and bedding had been soaked by torrential rain on the night they landed. The gravity of his allegation meant that the surgeon superintendents and other witnesses were compelled to attend. The schoolmaster, William believed,
has made many most false statements, in which he is backed out
by his wife & family … I wish the evidence was given on oath in
order that he might be taken up for perjury which he most richly
Embittered by the death of his eighteen-year-old daughter in quarantine,
the schoolmaster had brought serious charges against the senior
surgeon superintendent. The captain, however, accustomed to complaints
from the schoolmaster during the passage, considered him
to have exaggerated the privations at the quarantine station. Nevertheless,
the aggrieved and grieving father’s accusations illuminated the
weaknesses of the quarantine system, and contributed to the urgency
with which colonial authorities turned their attention to improving
Having cared for nearly 1,000 people at a station equipped to accommodate only 150, the Immigration Board had learned a tough lesson.
As we shall see, the Emigration Commissioners, who had warned the
colonial governments against chartering double-decked ships, were
shaken by news of the disastrous voyage. After the arrival of this, and a
few other fateful double-decked ships in Victoria within a few months
of each other, the Commissioners took immediate steps to ensure that
such large vessels were chartered no more.
Meanwhile, Haynes Gibbes Alleyne, the Health Officer at Port
Jackson (Sydney), believed that in spite of the difficulties at the quarantine station, the strict procedures instituted by the authorities had
contained the diseases brought ashore. He insisted that the measles
that then prevailed in Sydney had been ‘introduced from Melbourne’,
and not from the Beejapore, as was rumoured. Moreover, the epidemic
in Sydney was of a milder strain than that experienced by children on
the Beejapore and ‘although it has prevailed to a very great extent
‘It would be very satisfactory to land them all in good health’ 5
among all classes of the population, the mortality resulting from it has
been trifling’.5 He was adamant that ships arriving from the United
Kingdom in 1853 had introduced no infectious disease into the general
population. In his opinion, quarantine worked.
William Usherwood’s story is by no means typical, but his commentary
introduces us to life at sea on an uncharacteristically large
ship where discipline disintegrated. We ought not think too harshly of
the surgeon superintendents on the Beejapore. They were undoubtedly
crushed by the sheer weight of responsibility vested in them to discipline
and care for such a huge crowd of people in extremely difficult
circumstances. Even on smaller vessels than the Beejapore, the most
efficient surgeons in the Victorian era, those dedicated to the ideal
of public health and hygiene at sea, were often powerless to save
the more vulnerable of their charges in the face of fatal childhood illnesses.
And even the best and most experienced of them were sometimes
frustrated by uncooperative and unruly behaviour amongst
people unaccustomed to so much interference in their lives.
Harriet Hurrell died on 20 February 1853, at 23 years of age, while still in quarantine from the one of the diseases that had killed 108 children and 11 adults on the Beejapore. She was buried at The First Burial Ground,
at The Quarantine Station. She and John did not have any children.
John remarried : ELLEN CROWE 26/11/1854 in Parish of St Lawrence in the County of Cumberland NSW. (C of E ) 677/41B. Witnesses: FREDERICK LOUIS WILLIAM HERRMANN of Castlereagh St Sydney, and JANE HERRMANN of Castlereagh St Sydney. Age 37. Occupation Farmer at time of Thomas’ birth in 1865. Buried FREDERICKTON CEMETERY McLeay River NSW Row M C of E Section. ELLEN CROWE was the daughter of MICHAEL CROWE and was born in DUBLIN IRELAND in c 1831. She died at at McLeay River on 12/2/1899.
Their first born child was John, born on 28 May 1855. He was christened in Surry Hills on 26 April 1858 in the parish of St James in the county of Cumberland NSW (St Mary’s Cathedral register), when John and Ellen were living at 28 Foster Street, Haymarket. He died 3 February 1875 aged 20 of typhoid. He was ill for three months.
Around 1858 John and Ellen Hurrell moved to the Macleay area to work for the Oaks familys, on the property called Seven Oaks situated on the banks of the Macleay River.
Eliza was born 21 May 1858. Se died 3 August 1939 aged 81 and was buried in the Methodist section of the Frederickton Cemetery. She died of senility and a fractured femur.
Lucy Jane born 8 June 1860, and died 25 January 1948, aged 88. Lucy Jane was born at Seven Oaks, Macleay River NSW.
Grandma Sanders aka Lucy Jane Hurrell (front row left) with her sisters
Between the birth of Lucy Jane and Mark, John and Ellen purchased their farm on Kinchella creek.
Mark was born 13 December 1861 and married 3 times. Mark died on 27 July 1910 aged 48.
Mary was born 24 August 1863 and married William Henry Price on 14 August 1884 and died 28 April 1956 at 93. William Henry Price died at Cudgen; Tweed Shire aged 90, 20 August 1949, of senility and prostate cancer. He was cremated at Mt Thompson, Brisbane.
Thomas Dennis was born 10 May 1865, married Isabella Smail Kerr on 15 August 1889. He died 10 August 1946 aged 81.
(The Hurrell clan Tomas Dennis and Isabella Smail)
Ellen Matilda born 11 March 1867 did not marry.
James was born 10 February 1869 and did not marry. He died 4 October 1946, aged 77 and was cremated at Rookwood Cemetery. He died of a cerebral haemorrhage and arteriosclerosis.
On the 3rd of February 1875 John and Ellen’s first born child, John, died of typhoid at the age of 20.
George was born 16 August 1873 and died of Convulsions 14 March 1875 aged 20 months, six weeks after the death of first born John. He was sick for two days. Both John Jr and George are buried at the family plot in Frederickton.
Ann was born 1872 and married Albert Dudley Johnston on 12 June 1895
Some other documents have been gathered and are randomly scanned for your perusal.
John Hurrell 1